|File Name||Last Modified|
|1MA78: W-CDMA Basestation Permormance tests1MA78: W-CDMA Basestation Permormance tests||04.03.2015|
3GPP TS25.141 defines conformance tests for UTRA base stations (NodeB). This application note describes how performance tests (TS25.141 Chapter 8) can be performed quickly and easily by using vector signal generators from Rohde & Schwarz. Examples illustrate the manual operation. A free software program enables and demonstrates remote operation.
|1MA162: LTE-A Base Station Performance Tests1MA162: LTE-A Base Station Performance Tests||04.03.2015|
3GPP TS36.141 defines conformance tests for EUTRA base stations (eNodeB). Release 10 (LTEAdvanced) added several tests, such as those for PUCCH format 3. This application note describes how all required performance tests (TS36.141 Chapter 8) can be performed quickly and easily by using vector signal generators from Rohde & Schwarz. Examples illustrate the manual operation. A free software program enables and demonstrates remote operation.
The LTE base station transmitter (Tx) tests (TS36.141 Chapter 6) are described in Application Note 1MA154. The LTE base station receiver (Rx) tests (TS36.141 Chapter 7) are described in Application Note 1MA195.
|7MH89: DOCSIS 3.1 7MH89: DOCSIS 3.1||02.03.2015|
For cable TV, the "last mile" to the connection at the home is the bottleneck that prevents higher data rates. The last mile is made up of optical fiber and coaxial cables, amplifiers and electrical/optical converters. This mix of optical fiber and coaxial cables is known as a hybrid fiber coax (HFC) network. One option for cable network providers to maximize both the downstream (DS) and upstream (US) data throughput using the existing cable TV network, but without making expensive changes to the HFC network infrastructure, is to employ the data over cable service interface specification (DOCSIS) 3.1.
This Application Note discusses the fundamental technological advances of DOCSIS 3.1 and presents measurement solutions from Rohde & Schwarz.
|1MA190: Basic Tests on NFC Enabled Devices using R&S Test Equipment1MA190: Basic Tests on NFC Enabled Devices using R&S Test Equipment||02.03.2015|
This Application Note describes how to perform basic NFC analog tests on NFC-enabled devices and NFC tags. The tests are carried out with R&S test instruments and R&S NFC Measurement Software, using the NFC Forum Reference devices available from R&S.
In order to perform the tests described in the application note 1MA190 please use the beta SW Version FS-K112_1.2_Beta16.
|1MA252: LTE- Advanced (3GPP Rel.12) Technology Introduction White Paper1MA252: LTE- Advanced (3GPP Rel.12) Technology Introduction White Paper||27.02.2015|
This white paper summarizes significant additional technology components based on LTE, which are included in 3GPP Release 12 specifications. The LTE technology as specified within 3GPP Release 8 was first commercially deployed by end 2009. Since then the number of commercial networks is strongly increasing around the globe. LTE has become the fastest developing mobile system technology ever. As other cellular technologies LTE is continuously worked on in terms of improvements. 3GPP groups added technology components according to so called releases. Initial enhancements were included in 3GPP Release 9, followed by more significant improvements in 3GPP Release 10, also known as LTE-Advanced. Beyond Release 10 a number of different market terms have been used. However 3GPP reaffirmed that the naming for the technology family and its evolution continues to be covered by the term LTE-Advanced. Therefore LTE-Advanced remains the correct description for specifications defined from Release 10 onwards, including 3GPP Release 12.
|1MA145: Versatile RF Fading Simulator1MA145: Versatile RF Fading Simulator||27.02.2015|
Fading in the baseband of the R&S®SMW200A signal generator is well proven and widely accepted for testing any mobile radio standard. However, there are applications where an RF signal must be faded.A versatile RF Fading Simulator can easily be built using an R&S®FSW, R&S®FSQ, R&S®FSG, R&S®FSV signal analyzer with Digital Base Band Interface or with the instrument combination R&S® TSMW / R&S®IQR and an R&S®SMU signal generator with digital baseband inputs and fading simulator option. Note describes how.
|1MA228: How to use Rohde & Schwarz® Instruments with LabVIEW1MA228: How to use Rohde & Schwarz® Instruments with LabVIEW||30.01.2015|
Having the possibility to remotely control instruments has become the necessity not only in the field of automated production testing but more and more already in the phase of development. One of the programming environments that makes this task accessible for designers with very little or no programming experience is LabVIEW. To make the remote control of instruments easier, Rohde & Schwarz provides the LabVIEW Instrument drivers that take away the burden of controlling, synchronization, response formatting and error handling from the developer.
This paper explains how to use Rohde & Schwarz instruments together with LabVIEW in order to prepare an automated measurement task quickly and efficiently. It focuses mainly on using Rohde & Schwarz LabVIEW Instrument drivers, in addition in several occasions it also shows comparisons with the approach of a plain SCPI communication.
|1DC01: Malware Protection II White Paper Windows 71DC01: Malware Protection II White Paper Windows 7||27.01.2015|
Rohde & Schwarz recognizes the potential risk of computer virus infection when con-necting Windows®-based test instrumenta-tion to other computers via local area net-works (LANs), or using removable storage devices.
This white paper introduces measures to minimize malware threats and discusses ways to mitigate risks while insuring that instrument performance is not compro-mised.
The paper discusses the use of anti-virus software. It also outlines how to keep the Windows® 7 operating system properly updated through regular installation of OS patches.
|1MA98: dB or not dB?1MA98: dB or not dB?||15.01.2015|
True or false: 30 dBm + 30 dBm = 60 dBm? Why does 1% work out to be -40 dB one time but then 0.1 dB or 0.05 dB the next time? These questions sometimes leave even experienced engineers scratching their heads. Decibels are found everywhere, including power levels, voltages, reflection coefficients, noise figures, field strengths and more. What is a decibel and how should we use it in our calculations? This Application Note is intended as a refresher on the subject of decibels.
|1EE25: Click Rate Analyzer for EMI Test Receivers R&S®ESU, R&S®ESR and R&S®ESCI1EE25: Click Rate Analyzer for EMI Test Receivers R&S®ESU, R&S®ESR and R&S®ESCI||15.01.2015|
This application note provides a description of the Rohde & Schwarz Click Rate Analyzer software.
In conjunction with the R&S®ESR EMI Test Receiver 4-channel operation is applicable. With R&S®ESU and R&S®ESCI EMI Test Receivers the Click Rate Analyzer software is limited to one channel.
This software performs click rate analysis in accordance with CISPR 16-1-1 and CISPR 14-1:2005 / EN 55014-1:2006. It features realtime graphic display of the maximum peak and quasi-peak values. After the measurement, a test report can be displayed and printed.
|1GP103: Connecting and Interfacing with SGMA Instruments1GP103: Connecting and Interfacing with SGMA Instruments||13.01.2015|
The SGMA products from Rohde & Schwarz are optimized for use in production and automated applications. Their key characteristics are high speed and a compact design.
The instruments are also an ideal enhancement for the R&S®SMW200A in MIMO applications. They can interface to the high-end vector signal generator and serve as additional RF outputs.
This application note explains how to connect and interface with the SGMA instruments and gives some recommendations and hints about their use. It helps the user to get started and to understand how the instruments interact.
|1MA196: Using R&S®Forum Application for Instrument Remote Control1MA196: Using R&S®Forum Application for Instrument Remote Control||08.01.2015|
R&S®Forum is a free scripting tool for remote control of Rohde & Schwarz instruments. It allows users to run and edit example script sequences and to write their own script files, as well as on-the-fly remote control of instruments. Script files can range from simple command sequences (Winbatch syntax) to complex programs using the programming language Python.
|1EF55: EVM Measurements for ZigBee signals in the 2.4 GHz band1EF55: EVM Measurements for ZigBee signals in the 2.4 GHz band||12.12.2014|
IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) uses Offset QPSK with a half-sine pulse-shaping filter as modulation. This application note describes how to set up the Rohde & Schwarz signal analyzers together with the corresponding vector signal analysis (VSA) personality for modulation quality measurements, especially EVM, for ZigBee.
|1GP96: CDM-Toolbox - Digital Modulation in a simple way1GP96: CDM-Toolbox - Digital Modulation in a simple way||12.12.2014|
This application note provides a brief introduction into the capabilities of the R&S Vector Signal Generators (VSG) to create user defined digitally modulated signals called Custom Digital Modulation (CDM).
|1GP105: Generation of IEEE 802.15.4 Signals1GP105: Generation of IEEE 802.15.4 Signals||12.12.2014|
This application note describes how to create and generate standard-conform IEEE 802.15.4 test signals with the R&S Vector Signal Generators (VSG).
It provides a brief introduction in the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY and MAC layer, explains in detail how a user-defined frame can be created by using the R&S IEEE 802.15.4 Frame Builder Excel spreadsheet and provides the information required to generate a Frame Builder based test signal with the R&S vector signal generators. Finally an overview of standardized IEEE 802.15.4 PHY receiver tests is given.
|1SP17: LTE Drive Test - How to benefit from using a R&S®TSMW1SP17: LTE Drive Test - How to benefit from using a R&S®TSMW||11.12.2014|
This document describes the highlights of LTE scanning functionality of TSMW. In an FAQ style, it explains briefly the background of LTE and leads to the important measurements that have to be done in a proper network roll-out.
|1MA241: eCall Conformance Testing1MA241: eCall Conformance Testing||11.12.2014|
Emergency Call (eCall) is a service provided in Europe with the goal of reducing response times for accidents or other emergencies on the roadways. This application note briefly describes the technology behind eCall and presents conformance tests for eCall using the R&S®CMW500 RF tester and the R&S®SMBV100A vector signal generator. A Test software for eCall makes it quick and easy to perform these tests with the GSM or W-CDMA wireless communications standard.
|1MA234: Pulsed RADAR signal generation and measurements1MA234: Pulsed RADAR signal generation and measurements||20.11.2014|
Current Radar development is focusing the area of signal processing. This is taken into account by this educational note, where the R&S® SMW / SMBV instruments on the transmitter side and R&S®FSW / FSV instruments on the receiver side are combined to a closed loop Radar system, performing radar detection by means of pulse compression and digital signal processing. Appropriate R&S sofware tools for such applications are described as well as the interface between the tools and the test instruments.
Target reader group are engineering students who want to perform tests using pulsed or chirped signals.
|TeleZüri goes tapeless with Rohde & Schwarz DVS technology||18.11.2014|
TeleZüri, Switzerland’s most successful regional TV station, has switched from tape-based operations to file-based workflows. At the same time, TeleZüri was introducing HD as standard resolution in its workflows.
|File-based broadcasting with R&S®VENICE – The ingest and production server||18.11.2014|
A major US East Coast broadcast network was looking for a solution that would enable them to orchestrate multiple business units to handle the increased demand to deliver content with a very fast turnaround.
|R&S®SpycerBox and STRAWBERRY®: Fast and easy project sharing: R&S®storage systems with FlavourSys®R&S®SpycerBox and STRAWBERRY®: Fast and easy project sharing: R&S®storage systems with FlavourSys®||18.11.2014|
Complex production workflows in several broadcast, post production or presentation environments not only need a solid storage architecture, but also intelligent project sharing since several teams require access to all data.
|SOAP and FIMS in media environments||18.11.2014|
A future-proof API to enable and streamline customized and automated workflows with Rohde & Schwarz DVS software applications.
|1EF90: Speeding up Spectrum Analyzer Measurements1EF90: Speeding up Spectrum Analyzer Measurements||17.11.2014|
Test time is a critical parameter when it comes to evaluating the cost of test.
This application note describes typical spectrum analyzer measurements in production environments and discusses different approaches to speed them up.
|1MA208: Fast Remote Instrument Control with HiSLIP 1MA208: Fast Remote Instrument Control with HiSLIP||12.11.2014|
This application note introduces the IVI High Speed LAN Instrument Protocol (HiSLIP) and outlines its features. HiSLIP is the successor to the VXI-11 LAN remote control protocol. This document also describes guidelines for using this protocol.
|8GE01: Antenna Basics8GE01: Antenna Basics||04.11.2014|
This white paper describes the basic functionality of antennas. Starting with Hertz's Antenna model followed by a short introduction to the fundamentals of wave propagation, the important general characteristics of an antenna and its associated parameters are explained. A more detailed explanation of the functionality of some selected antenna types concludes this white paper.
|1MA256: Real-time Radar Target Generation1MA256: Real-time Radar Target Generation||30.10.2014|
Radar test systems are essential in research, development, production and maintenance of radar systems. Most test systems measure single radar parameters or substitute components, but do not test the entire system including the antenna frontend. This application note presents a solution for testing the complete radar system which transmits any kind of radar signal by generating radar echo signals with arbitrary range, Doppler frequency and Radar Cross Section in response. Hence, arbitrary virtual targets are generated making it possible to perform real-time tests on many kinds of aerospace and defense or commercial radar systems.
|1EF89: Interference Hunting with R&S®FSH1EF89: Interference Hunting with R&S®FSH||21.10.2014|
This application note explains how to detect, characterize, find and document interferers in cellular networks using the R&S®FSH spectrum analyzer.
First it explains how to use the spectrum and interference analysis functions during each step of interference hunting. It also illustrates the explanations with a common interferer example. Then it points out the most common interference sources in cellular networks and gives tips on how to identify them.
|1MA67: W-CDMA Base Station Transmitter Tests According to TS25.141 Rel. 101MA67: W-CDMA Base Station Transmitter Tests According to TS25.141 Rel. 10||21.10.2014|
3GPP TS25.141 defines conformance tests for W-CDMA base stations (including HSPA+ features). This application note describes how transmitter (Tx) tests (TS25.141 Chapter 6) can be performed quickly and easily by using signal and spectrum analyzers from Rohde & Schwarz. A few tests additionally require vector signal generators from Rohde & Schwarz. Example illustrates manual operation. A free software program enables and demonstrates remote operation. The W-CDMA base station receiver (Rx) tests (TS25.141 Chapter 7) are described in Application Note 1MA114.
|1MA114: W-CDMA Base Station Receiver Tests According to TS25.141 Rel. 101MA114: W-CDMA Base Station Receiver Tests According to TS25.141 Rel. 10||21.10.2014|
3GPP TS25.141 defines conformance tests for W-CDMA base stations (including HSPA+ features). This application note describes how all required receiver (Rx) tests (TS25.141 Chapter 7) can be performed easily and quickly by using vector signal generators and CW sources from Rohde & Schwarz. One test additionally requires a spectrum analyzer from Rohde & Schwarz.Example illustrates manual operation. A free software program enables and demonstrates remote operation. The W-CDMA base station transmitter (Tx) tests (TS25.141 Chapter 6) are described in Application Note 1MA67.
|7BM87: R&S A/V Distortion Analysis – Inspecting Output Quality of Audio and Video Devices7BM87: R&S A/V Distortion Analysis – Inspecting Output Quality of Audio and Video Devices||15.10.2014|
For A/V devices such as smartphones, tablet PCs, Blu-ray players, set-top boxes and TV sets, the perceived video quality must satisfy very high standards. A/V devices need to hold their own in three main areas:
ı Stability (environmental influences, response to source signal disturbances, etc.)
ı Performance (switching times, delays)
ı Compliance with standards (input and output formats)
Any deviations from the expected video and audio output can be automatically and precisely detected with R&S A/V distortion analysis on all common analog and digital interfaces such as HDMI™ and MHL™.
This document examines the relevant setups and configurations.
|1MA143: LTE Downlink MIMO Verification with R&S®SMW200A and R&S®FSW1MA143: LTE Downlink MIMO Verification with R&S®SMW200A and R&S®FSW||09.10.2014|
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) is an integral part of LTE. Vector signal generators and signal & spectrum analyzers from Rohde & Schwarz support LTE measurements with up to 4 antennas. This Application Note covers 2x2 MIMO in the LTE downlink. Remote control programming is demonstrated by examples for a free-of-charge program. Forum Link
|1GP104: Envelope Tracking and Digital Pre-Distortion Test Solution for RF Amplifiers1GP104: Envelope Tracking and Digital Pre-Distortion Test Solution for RF Amplifiers||25.09.2014|
The R&S®SMW200A together with the R&S®FSW is a state of the art testing solution that significantly reduces the required hardware for testing power amplifiers with envelope tracking and/or digital pre-distortion.
This application note introduces the test solution in detail and presents corresponding measurement examples.
|1MA245: Vulnerabilities of LTE and LTEAdvanced Communication White Paper1MA245: Vulnerabilities of LTE and LTEAdvanced Communication White Paper||16.09.2014|
Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology has become the technology of choice for keeping up with the requirement of higher throughput in mobile communication in bands below 6 GHz. It is expected that within the next decade LTE will become the primary commercial standard. LTE is often used to broadcast emergency information in times of natural disasters and national crises and is under investigation for further end use application in government as well as military application fields.
Communication via LTE has some vulnerabilities. This drawback is a matter of concern since it is possible to completely take down the LTE network or at least partially block communication, intentionally with the help of jamming signals, or unintentionally through various forms of interference.
An example of unintentional interference issues is the frequently discussed co-existence issues with Air Traffic Control (ATC) S-band radar and Digital TV bands. The in-device co-existence challenge is also a potentially important issue with the rapid evolution of multi-standard radios.
This White Paper will focus on the vulnerabilities of LTE communication by explaining LTE jamming and unintentional interference problems, address the coexistence issues with other services, and discuss the mitigation options to build a broad perspective on the possible deployment of the LTE technology for future military and civil governmental applications.
Understanding the susceptance of new technologies to known and expected environments is critical to the adoption for defense applications
|1MA195: LTE-A Base Station Receiver Tests1MA195: LTE-A Base Station Receiver Tests||15.09.2014|
3GPP TS36.141 defines conformance tests for EUTRA base stations (eNodeB). Release 10 (LTEAdvanced) added several tests, such as those for multicarrier scenarios. This application note describes how all required receiver (Rx) tests (TS36.141 Chapter 7) can be performed quickly and easily by using vector signal generators from Rohde & Schwarz. A few tests additionally require spectrum analyzers from Rohde & Schwarz.. Examples illustrate the manual operation. A free software program enables and demonstrates remote operation.
|1MA253: LTE Video Quality Measurements with R&S®CMWrun1MA253: LTE Video Quality Measurements with R&S®CMWrun||08.09.2014|
This application note shows how to determine the quality of a video streamed by an LTE mobile with R&S®CMW500 Radio Communication Tester and R&S®VTE Video Analyzer. The R&S®CMWrun Test Software with CMW-KT051 General Purpose and CMW-KT105 AV Difference Analysis option allows the user to easily automate these tests.
|1GA66: Spectral and Time-Domain Analysis of Recorded Wave Files on the Audio Analyzer R&S® UPV1GA66: Spectral and Time-Domain Analysis of Recorded Wave Files on the Audio Analyzer R&S® UPV||05.09.2014|
The instrument setup provided in this application note allows to analyze a degraded speech signal stored into a wave file and to display its FFT spectrum and waveform.
|1MA166: Testing LTE-Advanced1MA166: Testing LTE-Advanced||03.09.2014|
LTE-Advanced comprises multiple features enhancing the basic LTE technology firstly specified in 3GPP Release 8. LTE including the LTEAdvanced improvements was approved by ITU to comply with IMT-Advanced requirements and thus being a true 4G mobile communication system. The different technology components of LTE-Advanced have different market priorities and require different testing strategies. This application note summarizes the Rohde &Schwarz test solutions for LTE-Advanced (Release 10) using Vector Signal Generators, Signal and Spectrum Analyzers and the Wideband Radio Communication Tester.
|1MA217: mm-Wave Band Signal Generation and Analysis1MA217: mm-Wave Band Signal Generation and Analysis||02.09.2014|
This application note describes how to generate and analyze wideband digitally modulated signals in the mm-wave range.
Rohde & Schwarz measuring equipment and some 3rd party off-the-shelf accessories are used for both signal generation and analysis. Measurement results are shown which demonstrate the typical performance for millimeter wave signals in terms of error vector magnitude (EVM) and adjacent channel power (ACLR).
Two test setups and their measurement results on a commercial V-band transceiver module are presented.
|7BM90: UHD 4K end-to-end broadcasting over DVB-T27BM90: UHD 4K end-to-end broadcasting over DVB-T2||29.08.2014|
In this application note, a UHD 4K end-to-end solution utilizing products from Rohde & Schwarz is described in detail from the point at which 4K content is captured until its delivery to households via a DVB-T2 SFN network.
|1SP08: 3D Evaluation for EMI Auto Test with R&S©EMC32-K231SP08: 3D Evaluation for EMI Auto Test with R&S©EMC32-K23||26.08.2014|
The option R&S®EMC32-K23 extends the emission measurement of the EMI Auto Test (R&S®EMC32-K10) with 3D measurement capabilities.
This extension is useful to display the 3D radiation pattern of each frequency.
This Application Notes shows all necessary settings for 3D measurement.
|1MA231: State-of-the-Art Mobile Radio Measurements1MA231: State-of-the-Art Mobile Radio Measurements||22.08.2014|
The topic of this application note is mobile phone measurements – in theory and in practice. It discusses measurements according to the most common standard in use today, GSM.
The first, theoretical portion of this application note covers digital modulation and access methods in general. This is followed by an overview of the specific characteristics of the GSM standard as well as a summary of the most important mobile radio measurements.
The second, practical portion of this application note covers some of these measurements in detail and runs through them step by step. These measurements can be performed by small groups in labs.
The measurements and analysis of the results are intended to illustrate the theoretical portion of the application note and to deepen the reader's understanding.
All measurements are performed using the R&S®CMW500 wideband radio communication tester and an off the shelf mobile phone.
|1EF62: Hints and Tricks for Remote Control of Spectrum and Network Analyzers1EF62: Hints and Tricks for Remote Control of Spectrum and Network Analyzers||19.08.2014|
This application note provides hints for implementing remote control programs using Rohde & Schwarz spectrum and network analyzers. The document makes suggestions for improved remote control performance and describes aspects of measurement synchronization in detail. Finally the document discusses some typical challenges of remote control in production test.
|1GP86: GPS, Glonass, Galileo, Beidou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal Simulator 1GP86: GPS, Glonass, Galileo, Beidou Receiver Testing Using a GNSS Signal Simulator||29.07.2014|
Testing global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers can be done easily, reliably and cost-efficiently by using the R&S®SMBV100A vector signal generator. This GNSS simulator can generate GPS, Glonass, Galileo, and Beidou signals for up to 24 satellites in real time.
This application note explains how to perform automated receiver tests using the R&S®SMBV100A. The presented tests include TTFF, sensitivity, and location accuracy measurements, moving receiver and interference tests, and many more. Basic remote control examples are provided for the individual tests to ease programming. This application note further includes a short guide for parsing NMEA data.
|1GA65: Replacing R&S® CMU200 with R&S® CMW500 in 2G and 3G Speech Test Applications1GA65: Replacing R&S® CMU200 with R&S® CMW500 in 2G and 3G Speech Test Applications||25.07.2014|
The combination of R&S® CMU200 and R&S® UPV is in use for various tests of mobile phone speech functionality, such as acoustic tests according to 3GPP 26.132 or speech quality tests according to ITU-T P.862 (PESQ®) or ITU-T P.863 (POLQA®). This application note explains how to replace the R&S® CMU200 in these tasks with R&S® CMW500.
|1SP07: EMI Automotive Band Evaluation1SP07: EMI Automotive Band Evaluation||17.07.2014|
EMI Automotive Band Evaluation extension is an on-board EMI measurement sequence in broadband and communications frequency bands for automotive and aerospace applications. This application notes shows how to configure, run, and automatically document tests in a sequence coming with EMC32-K51.
|1MA194 : UE Fading Test with the CMW500 RF Tester and the SMW200A1MA194 : UE Fading Test with the CMW500 RF Tester and the SMW200A||10.07.2014|
This application note shows how to perform user equipment (UE) receiver tests, such as block error rate (BLER) and throughput tests, under fading conditions with the R&S®CMW500 RF tester and the R&S®SMW200A vector signal generator in LTE(-A), W-CDMA (HSPA+), TD-SCDMA and GSM (GRPS and EGPRS(2)).
|1MA242: R&S®EMC32 EUT Monitoring with R&S® Digital Oscilloscopes1MA242: R&S®EMC32 EUT Monitoring with R&S® Digital Oscilloscopes||08.07.2014|
This application note describes how to use the mask and limit test features of the R&S®RTO, R&S®RTE and R&S®RTM Digital Oscilloscopes for EUT monitoring of signal forms, jitter etc. with the R&S®EMC32 Measurement Software. The mask test function allows autonomous characterization of digital signal integrity during EMS tests. R&S®EMC32 software records violations of userdefined limits or mask templates and evaluates the immunity threshold at frequencies of critical electromagnetic susceptibility.
|1GA64: Collection of Setups for Measurements with the R&S®UPV and R&S®UPP Audio Analyzers1GA64: Collection of Setups for Measurements with the R&S®UPV and R&S®UPP Audio Analyzers||07.07.2014|
A large variety of measurements is performed in audio engineering in order to ensure transmission quality of analog and digital devices. An audio analyzer suitable for all these tasks will, therefore, incorporate a multitude of functions, resulting in a correspondingly large number of settings.
This application note is to help test engineers using the R&S®UPP and R&S®UPV audio analyzers. It presents setting examples for all basic audio measurements to be performed immediately. For each setup, information is given on the type of measurement, the underlying standards, and on how to modify the graphic display results.
|1SP06: Interactive EMI Measurements with R&S©EMC32-K241SP06: Interactive EMI Measurements with R&S©EMC32-K24||25.06.2014|
The option R&S®EMC32-K24 extends the emission measurement of the EMI Auto Test (R&S®EMC32-K10) with interactive measurement capabilities. This extension is useful for test verification and measurement during product improvement.
|1TD05: EMI Debugging with the R&S®RTO and R&S®RTE Oscilloscopes1TD05: EMI Debugging with the R&S®RTO and R&S®RTE Oscilloscopes||25.06.2014|
This application note offers a straightforward description of how to analyze EMI problems using the R&S®RTO and R&S®RTE. The discussion begins by covering the basic mechanisms that can result in unwanted RF emissions and then describes how to proceed in analyzing EMI problems. Finally, a practical example is given to illustrate the analysis process.
|1MA09: FreRes - Program for Frequency Response Measurements1MA09: FreRes - Program for Frequency Response Measurements||05.06.2014|
This application note introduces the program FreRes. Use this program to measure the frequency and/or level response of a device under test, using a generator as signal source and a power meter, a receiver or a spectrum analyzer as indicator
|7BM85: Compliance Testing, Functional Testing and Debugging of HDMI Interfaces7BM85: Compliance Testing, Functional Testing and Debugging of HDMI Interfaces||04.06.2014|
The high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI™) is used to transmit audio and video data. HDMI has become the standard for a variety of consumer electronic products, such as Blu-ray™ players, A/V receivers, set-top box, TV monitors and digital video/ still cameras.
The HDMI interface measurements needed for these products require specialized T&M equipment. This equipment is not only needed for certification, but is also used for a variety of tests during development, for quality assurance and for end-of-line production testing. The R&S®VTC, R&S®VTE and R&S®VTS video testers from Rohde & Schwarz make it possible to test A/V interfaces such as HDMI easily, reliably and cost efficiently.
This application note focuses on functional testing and debugging of HDMI interfaces using the R&S®VTC/VTE/VTS. It explains how these instruments can be used to assess the HDCP implementation, the ARC or the CEC functionality.
|1MA186: LTE Transmission Modes and Beamforming1MA186: LTE Transmission Modes and Beamforming||20.05.2014|
Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology is an integral part of 3GPP E-UTRA long term evolution (LTE). As part of MIMO, beamforming is also used in LTE. This white paper discusses the basics of beamforming and explains the nine downlink and two uplink MIMO transmission modes in LTE Release 10.
|1MA71: Measuring the Nonlinearities of RF Amplifiers Using Signal Generators and a Spectrum Analyzer1MA71: Measuring the Nonlinearities of RF Amplifiers Using Signal Generators and a Spectrum Analyzer||20.05.2014|
A typical application for signal generators and spectrum analyzers is measuring nonlinearities of RF amplifiers. This application note discusses the basics of nonlinearities and describes the nonlinearity measurement using the R&S Value Instruments RF Signal Generator R&S®SMC100A and Spectrum Analyzer R&S®FSC.
|1MA203: Receiving BEIDOU, GALILEO and GPS signals with MATLAB® and R&S®IQR, R&S®TSMW1MA203: Receiving BEIDOU, GALILEO and GPS signals with MATLAB® and R&S®IQR, R&S®TSMW||19.05.2014|
Satellite Navigation became quite common during the recent years. In addition to the established U:S: GPS system, China has develloped its own navigation system called BEIDOU. Since BEIDOU receivers are not yet wide spread on the market, this MATLAB based application can be used to analyze and process BEIDOU signals. The free application enables and demonstrates remote operation of Rohde & Schwarz instruments using SCPI commands and attribute based drivers directly out of MATLAB scripts and functions.
|1EF88: Automated Measurements of 77 GHz FMCW Radar Signals1EF88: Automated Measurements of 77 GHz FMCW Radar Signals||25.04.2014|
Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar signals are often used in short range surveillance, altimeters and automotive radars. To ensure proper functionality, signal quality measures such as frequency linearity are of great importance.
This application note focuses on fully automated, fast and accurate measurements, of linear FMCW radar signals. It explains the basic signal processing, the impact on radar key performance indicators in case of linearity deviations and explains test and measurement of linear FMCW signals in detail.
Measurement of an FMCW radar signal in the 77-81 GHz band with 500 MHz of measurement bandwidth is demonstrated.
|1MA211: Coexistence Test of LTE and Radar Systems1MA211: Coexistence Test of LTE and Radar Systems||28.03.2014|
Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar, military Air Traffic Surveillance (ATS) radar and meteorological radar operate in S-Band frequency range. In fact 4G communication systems such as Long Term Evolution (LTE) make also use of these frequencies. Test and measurement of their coexistence is absolutely essential as performance degradation of mobile devices and networks and even malfunction of ATC radars has been proven.
This application note describes LTE and S-Band radar coexistence test and measurement. It addresses LTE user equipment, base stations and S-Band radars and presents test solutions.
|1MA204: Voice over LTE (VoLTE) Speech Quality Measurements1MA204: Voice over LTE (VoLTE) Speech Quality Measurements||21.02.2014|
This application note and associated application software may be used to conduct psychoacoustic speech quality evaluation for Voice over LTE (VoLTE) connections. The measurements are based on recommendations ITU-T P.862 and ITU-T P.863, respectively. The CMWrun example sequences perform decoder / encoder calibration, connection setup for the UE under test and subsequent speech quality analysis under IP impairment conditions.
|1MA171: How to use Rohde & Schwarz Instruments in MATLAB1MA171: How to use Rohde & Schwarz Instruments in MATLAB||21.02.2014|
This application note outlines different approaches for remote-controlling Rohde & Schwarz® instruments out of MathWorks MATLAB®. For this purpose the Rohde & Schwarz VXIplug&play instrument drivers are used.
|1MA50: Network Analysis Video Tutorials1MA50: Network Analysis Video Tutorials||13.02.2014|
Welcome to this introductory video show about the R&S® ZVA family of network analyzers. Network analysis is sometimes considered to be cumbersome and difficult to understand, a very offputting reputation for newcomers to network analyzers. To help you look at network analyzers in a different light, we have created this video series. We have intentionally refrained from explaining any theory in depth. Rather, we want to show you how to operate our analyzers for simple and useful applications. As well as just watching this video show, you can also use it as a guide and try yourself. All the operational steps shown only require a standard RF power amplifier which should be available in almost every lab. So, before we get properly started, we hope you enjoy this video show and much success in becoming familiar with network analysis in general, and our R&S products in particular.
|7BM81: Generating a DVB-T2 Signal with Composite T2-Base and T2-Lite Content 7BM81: Generating a DVB-T2 Signal with Composite T2-Base and T2-Lite Content||03.02.2014|
Version 1.3.1 of the DVB-T2 standard ETSI 302 755 introduced the T2-Lite profile to ease the implementation of mobile TV services. This was achieved by minimizing the complexity of the required receiver and allowing side-by-side integration into existing conventional (T2-Base) DVB-T2 channels. For the purposes of testing the compatibility and performance of receiver modules, this application note describes how this type of composite T2-Base/T2-Lite RF signal can be simulated using one R&S®BTC or alternatively two instruments from the family of broadcast signal generators comprised of the R&S®SFU, R&S®SFE, R&S®SFE100 and R&S®SFC. Only one corresponding multiple profile T2-MI stream is required, either in the form of a file or via an external gateway.
|7BM80: Generating a Test Signal for Distributed DVB-T2 MISO7BM80: Generating a Test Signal for Distributed DVB-T2 MISO||03.02.2014|
This application note describes how the transmitter landscape of a DVB-T2 single-frequency network (SFN) can be simulated in multiple input single output (MISO) mode in order to test the compatibility and performance of receiver modules. Neither an external T2-MI gateway nor a GPS receiver is required - just an R&S®BTC equipped with two RF paths. Alternatively, one R&S®SFU coupled with one or more R&S®SFU, R&S®SFE, R&S®SFE100 or R&S®SFC can also be used. R&S®ETL or R&S®ETC are suggested to fine-tune the synchronization between the generated RF signals.
|7BM79: I/Q Waveform File Conversion for Use with Precise Broadcast Signal Generators7BM79: I/Q Waveform File Conversion for Use with Precise Broadcast Signal Generators||03.02.2014|
I/Q waveform files contain the digital complex sample values of a radio signal. They can be synthetically computer-calculated for generating precisely defined contents, or they can represent the recording of a received live signal. The structure of these files has never been standardized, which is why so many different formats are in use today. R&S®IQ Converter and R&S®IQ Stream Extractor are programs that quickly and conveniently convert the contents of I/Q waveform files of nearly any structure into the I/Q format used by the R&S®BTC, R&S®CLG, R&S®SLG, R&S®SFU, R&S®SFE and R&S®SFE100 signal generators. This makes it possible for the signal generators to use their integrated ARB function to generate precise RF signals from nearly any I/Q waveform file.
|1MA209: Radar Educational Videos1MA209: Radar Educational Videos||03.02.2014|
Welcome to our short video tutorials on how to test radars using Rohde & Schwarz test equipment. Access to most information about radar is pretty restricted, as many radar applications are military or secretive industrial research. To show you some basic Radar tests we have created RADAR demo tools, which functions at a frequency of 2.45 GHz, which is in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. So we can even perform our tests in unshielded rooms. The frequencies are also used by radar operating in the ITU "S"-band from 2.3 to 2.5 GHz for air traffic control, weather and marine radar. The videos are suitable for 'from-the-scratch' introduction of R&S RADAR test equipment. They can also be used for plain introduction to the RADAR principle.
|1GP88: R&S ARB Toolbox Plus1GP88: R&S ARB Toolbox Plus||03.02.2014|
The ARB Toolbox Plus is an easy-to-use, feature packed software package that is used for many ARB waveform related tasks. This software is the successor of the ARB Toolbox which is bundled with the 1GP62 application note. Use this software for creating ARB waveform files from custom IQ data; import data from MATLAB .mat files; evaluate waveform content graphically; resample or filter waveforms; create analog modulated signals as ARB files; edit marker data in waveform files; use the composer for the creation of complex multi carrier scanarios.
|1EE24: Comparison of Time Domain Scans and Stepped Frequency Scans in EMI Test Receivers1EE24: Comparison of Time Domain Scans and Stepped Frequency Scans in EMI Test Receivers||29.01.2014|
Taking the R&S ESR EMI test receiver as an example, this paper looks at a CISPR 16-1-1- compliant test instrument with time domain scanning capabilities. The paper compares the measurement speed and level measurement accuracy of a conventional stepped frequency scan versus an advanced FFT-based time domain scan. It also contains guidance on making optimum use of time domain scans.
|1MA154: LTE-A Base Station Transmitter Tests1MA154: LTE-A Base Station Transmitter Tests||08.01.2014|
3GPP TS36.141 defines conformance tests for EUTRA base stations (eNodeB). Release 10 (LTEAdvanced) added several tests, such as those for multicarrier scenarios.This application note describes how all required transmitter (Tx) tests (TS36.141 Chapter 6) can be performed quickly and easily by using signal and spectrum analyzers from Rohde & Schwarz. A few tests additionally require signal generators from Rohde & Schwarz. Examples illustrate the manual operation. A free software program enables and demonstrates remote operation.
|1MA226: Direct Remote Control of Switch Matrix OSP via Network and Spectrum Analyzers1MA226: Direct Remote Control of Switch Matrix OSP via Network and Spectrum Analyzers||06.12.2013|
This application note shows how to remote control an external R&S®OSP directly from a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) or from a Spectrum Analyzer (SA), for instance from the R&S®ZVA, R&S®ZVB, R&S®ZNB or R&S®FSW families. The application note describes the requirements and the setup procedure. It is shown how to install the software and how to setup the system in order to get highest flexibility and best usability. It is additionally shown how to calibrate the entire configuration and finally some practical examples are provided.The application note mainly addresses the use of VNAs,appendix 5.4 provides hints regarding the differences when using SAs in a similar way.
|1CM97: HSUPA RF Measurements with the R&S®CMW500 in line with 3GPP TS 34.1211CM97: HSUPA RF Measurements with the R&S®CMW500 in line with 3GPP TS 34.121||27.11.2013|
Most of the tests specified in the 3GPP standard TS 34.121  Release 6 (Rel-6) can be performed with the R&S®CMW500. This document provides a step-by-step guide on how to use a stand-alone R&S®CMW500 to take Rel-6 measurements on transmitter characteristics and execute performance tests according to TS 34.121 V9.7.0, clauses 5 and 10. Test cases that require fading simulation can also be carried out with the aid of a standalone R&S®CMW500 that has been configured with a built-in fading simulator option. That greatly reduces test setup complexity. Furthermore, the R&S®CMW500's wizard enables easy configuration of the test setup for various HSUPA subtests as specified by TS34.121 . The procedure detailing how the wizard is used is also explained for each test case. The test cases mentioned in this application note are carried out using Rel-6 user equipment (UE) that supports Operating Band I and Power Class 3.
|1TD04: Initial Evaluation of a DC/DC Switch Mode Power Supply1TD04: Initial Evaluation of a DC/DC Switch Mode Power Supply||26.11.2013|
|1MA220: 802.11ad – WLAN at 60 GHz1MA220: 802.11ad – WLAN at 60 GHz||21.11.2013|
Data rates in the range of several Gigabit/s are needed to transmit signals like uncompressed video signals. Amendment 802.11ad to the WLAN standard defines the MAC and PHY layers for very high throughput (VHT) in the 60 GHz range.
This white paper provides an introduction to the technology behind 802.11ad and highlights the test and measurement requirements.
|1MA239: Radar Waveforms for A&D and Automotive Radar1MA239: Radar Waveforms for A&D and Automotive Radar||18.11.2013|
This White Paper provides a more detailed view on radar waveforms for Aerospace and Defence and commercial radar systems. Waveforms such as pulse and pulse-Doppler signal, continuous wave and frequency shift keying waveforms are described. It also shows continuous waveform trends designed for specific needs and application differences of continuous wave radar compared to pulse radar systems.
|1GP102: Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Testing with a GNSS Simulator1GP102: Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Testing with a GNSS Simulator||18.11.2013|
The vector signal generator and GNSS simulator R&S®SMBV100A is remote-controllable in realtime and can therefore be implemented into a dynamic HIL environment. The HIL simulator can dictate position coordinates, kinetic parameters, and vehicle attitude information based upon which the R&S®SMBV100A updates the simulated receiver movement in realtime.
This application note presents background information and details about operating the R&S®SMBV100A in HIL applications.
|1CM101: CMW Support of WLAN 802.11ac1CM101: CMW Support of WLAN 802.11ac||21.10.2013|
The R&S CMW500/270 can generate and measure standard-compliant WLAN IEEE 802.11ac signals with bandwidths from 20 MHz up to 160 MHz.
This document explains the CMW solution for the signals with 160 MHz bandwidth and describes the required configurations step by step.
|1MA224: Characterization of Satellite Frequency Up-converters1MA224: Characterization of Satellite Frequency Up-converters||02.10.2013|
This application note describes methods using an R&S®ZVA network analyzer, one or two R&S®SMB100A signal generators and an R&S®FSW signal analyzer to accurately measure all the key parameters of frequency converters with embedded local oscillator. A commercial satellite up-converter is used as a device under test example.
|1MA213: 1xEV-DO Revision A + B1MA213: 1xEV-DO Revision A + B||23.09.2013|
1xEvolution – Data Optimized (1xEV-DO)is a 3GPP2 “cdma2000® High Rate PacketData Air Interface” specification. Since its introduction (Release 0), Revisions A and B have brought improvements in the data throughput in both directions and in the overall network capacity. This white paper presents the Revision A and B concepts for 1xEV-DO and explains key features.
|1GP98: SCPI-Recorder - Test Automation at Your Fingertips1GP98: SCPI-Recorder - Test Automation at Your Fingertips||20.09.2013|
This application note briefly summarizes the history of SCPI and outlines in which fields of application a SCPI based test system software has still advantages over a driver (e.g. IVI) based approach. Further the unique features of the high-end R&SSMW 200A vector signal generator that allow an increase in efficiency of SCPI based test system software development are introduced and operating guidelines are provided.
|7BM105: Measurements on FM Transmitters for Acceptance, Commissioning and Maintenance7BM105: Measurements on FM Transmitters for Acceptance, Commissioning and Maintenance||10.09.2013|
Despite the advent of advanced digital transmission methods, analog broadcasting remains highly important. Until now, measurements on FM transmitters in connection with acceptance testing, commissioning and maintenance required using a variety of T&M instruments.
The R&S ETL TV analyzer combines these instruments' capabilities in a single unit and can completely replace them. Now, for the first time, acceptance test measurements can be conducted on FM transmitters quickly and easily using just one compact test instrument. The R&S ETL provides the functionalities of a power meter, spectrum analyzer, audio generator, FM measurement demodulator, stereo decoder, audio analyzer and more in just one box.
|1GP101: Simulating Automatic Obscuration and Multipath for Realistic GNSS Receiver Testing1GP101: Simulating Automatic Obscuration and Multipath for Realistic GNSS Receiver Testing||09.09.2013|
The R&S®SMBV100A is both, a versatile general-purpose vector signal generator and a powerful GNSS signal simulator. It can simulate up to 24 satellites in realtime for testing GNSS receivers flexibly, reliably, and cost-efficiently.
The R&S®SMBV100A supports receiver testing under realistic conditions by offering features such as obscuration simulation and automatic multipath generation. Out of a multitude of possible test scenarios – with predefined or user-specific settings – this application note presents some examples to give an impression of the instrument’s capabilities.
|1TD03: Jitter Analysis with the R&S®RTO Digital Oscilloscope1TD03: Jitter Analysis with the R&S®RTO Digital Oscilloscope||29.08.2013|
This application note presents the Jitter analysis capabilities of the R&S®RTO for digital signals. It demonstrates the basic operation with an application example, and shows the associated jitter analysis.
|7BM88: DVB-C2 receiver tests in a simulated cable TV network with full channel load7BM88: DVB-C2 receiver tests in a simulated cable TV network with full channel load||30.07.2013|
The R&S®BTC broadcast test center generates DVB-C2 signals for receiver tests with a variety of simulated interference types. The selection tests stipulated by the DVB Project require a cable TV network with full channel load. Combining the R&S®BTC broadcast test center and the R&S®CLG cable load generator makes it quick and easy to create a flexible cable TV network with full channel load and to simulate all types of realistic interference, permitting tests in accordance with DVB.
|1MA29: NPR - Noise Power Ratio Signal Generation and Measurement1MA29: NPR - Noise Power Ratio Signal Generation and Measurement||26.07.2013|
Noise Power Ratio (NPR) is an add-on tool for WinIQSIM™ to generate noise power ratio stimulus signals and measure the resulting noise power ratio of a device under test (DUT) using Rohde & Schwarz instruments via LAN or GPIB bus.
|7BM104: DAB Transmitter Measurements for Acceptance, Commissioning and Maintenance7BM104: DAB Transmitter Measurements for Acceptance, Commissioning and Maintenance||24.07.2013|
Broadcasting transmitters are subject to particularly stringent standards with respect to broadcast signal quality, because even small faults can lead to service disruptions for many listeners. A single instrument, the R&S®ETL TV analyzer, performs all required DAB transmitter measurements, from the initial acceptance testing for the transmitter, to measurements performed during commissioning and preventive maintenance.
|1MA212: Conducted EMS and EMI Measurements with R&S®EMC321MA212: Conducted EMS and EMI Measurements with R&S®EMC32||19.07.2013|
This application note shows how to configure, calibrate and perform conducted EMS (Electro Magnetic Susceptibility) measurements according to IEC / EN 61000-4-6 and EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference) measurements according to CISPR 16-2-1 with the R&S®EMC32 software tool.
|1EZ65: Basic RF Amplifier Measurement using the R&S ZNB Vector Network Analyzer and 'Smarter Cal'1EZ65: Basic RF Amplifier Measurement using the R&S ZNB Vector Network Analyzer and 'Smarter Cal'||11.07.2013|
|1MA232: LTE- Advanced (3GPP Rel.11) Technology Introduction1MA232: LTE- Advanced (3GPP Rel.11) Technology Introduction||09.07.2013|
The LTE technology as specified within 3GPP Release 8 was first commercially deployed by end 2009. Since then the number of commercial networks is strongly increasing around the globe. LTE has become the fastest developing mobile system technology. As other cellular technologies LTE is continuously worked on in terms of improvements. 3GPP groups added technology components into so called releases. Initial enhancements were included in 3GPP Release 9, followed by more significant improvements in 3GPP Release 10, also known as LTE-Advanced. Beyond Release 10 a number of different market terms have been used. However 3GPP reaffirmed that the naming for the technology family and its evolution continues to be covered by the term LTE-Advanced. I.e. LTE-Advanced remains the correct description for specifications defined from Release 10 onwards, including 3GPP Release 12. This white paper summarizes improvements specified in 3GPP Release 11.
|1GP84: Time Synchronous Signals with Multiple R&S®SMBV100A Vector Signal Generators1GP84: Time Synchronous Signals with Multiple R&S®SMBV100A Vector Signal Generators||09.07.2013|
This application note explains how to synchronize the signals from multiple R&S®SMBV100A vector signal generators in time.
The synchronization of the instruments is based on a master-slave principle where one R&S®SMBV100A acts as master and supplies all necessary synchronization signals to the other instruments (slaves). The setup is simple and provides highly synchronized test signals.
Time synchronous signals are needed in several applications. The master-slave setup is ideal for basic MIMO tests, certain GNSS test scenarios and WLAN IEEE 802.11ac non-contiguous channel generation. Furthermore, synchronous baseband signals are the basis for generating phase coherent RF signals with the R&S®SMBV100A.
|1EF84: Differential measurements with Spectrum Analyzers and Probes1EF84: Differential measurements with Spectrum Analyzers and Probes||28.06.2013|
The constantly decreasing size of components and the available board space form a challenge to place adequate test connections for RF instruments. Recent improvements in the availability and use of high performance differential building blocks in RF circuits intensify the problems of connecting test equipment. Using oscilloscope probes is a possibility to perform measurements by connecting to printed circuit board lines and chip contacts where only a minimal area is required to make contact. This application note provides information on how to use oscilloscope probes in RF measurements using spectrum analyzers, and show the results of differential measurements with a spectrum analyzer.
|1MA218: Assisting Tools for Operation of Windows-Based T&M Instruments1MA218: Assisting Tools for Operation of Windows-Based T&M Instruments||13.06.2013|
Software tools allow to make the control of T&M instruments more convenient. The adoption of the following tools for Windows®-based T&M instruments is described: ● Synergy:One mouse and one keyboard control a group of T&M instruments ● CamStudio:Video clips of the display of a T&M instrumentare recorded during operation
|1MA215: Using R&S®NRP-Z Power Sensors with Android Handheld Devices1MA215: Using R&S®NRP-Z Power Sensors with Android Handheld Devices||04.06.2013|
This application note describes how to connect and use the highly popular R&S®NRP-Z family of USB SMART power sensors with the Android application (app): R&S®Power Viewer Mobile for mobile devices running on Android 4.0 operating systems. Multi-path diode and wideband power sensors as well as thermal R&S®NRP-Z sensors are supported. The app "R&S®Power Viewer Mobile" is available on Google Play.
|1TD02: Advanced Signal Analysis using the History Mode of the R&S®RTO Oscilloscope1TD02: Advanced Signal Analysis using the History Mode of the R&S®RTO Oscilloscope||03.06.2013|
Rare faults and intermittent signals are difficult to capture. The R&S®RTO Oscilloscope supports the acquisition and the detailed signal analysis of these signals by using the history mode. The history mode allows the user to look back to previous acquisitions and apply the wide set of analysis functions of the RTO. Furthermore it stores the accurate recoding time of the waveforms for subsequent analysis.
|1EZ64: Power Added Efficiency Measurement with R&S®ZNB/R&S®ZVA1EZ64: Power Added Efficiency Measurement with R&S®ZNB/R&S®ZVA||22.05.2013|
Power Added Efficiency (PAE) is a key parameter for the characterization of an amplifier.
This application notes introduces two alternative methods how to do the Power Added Efficiency measurement. The first one is based on the R&S ZNB vector network analyzer (VNA) measurement function. Alternatively to this, the PAE tracer macro is introduced. This macro offers to make the PAE at an user selected compression point of the amplifier versus frequency. The PAE tracer macro is provided together with this application note.
|1CM94: LTE RF measurements with R&S®CMW500 according to 3GPP TS36.521-11CM94: LTE RF measurements with R&S®CMW500 according to 3GPP TS36.521-1||17.05.2013|
The 3GPP TS 36.521-1 “Radio transmission and reception” LTE User Equipment (UE) conformance specification defines the measurement procedures for LTE terminals with regard to their transmitting characteristics, receiving characteristics and performance requirements as part of the 3G Long Term Evolution (3G LTE) standard. This application note describes how to use the LTE Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) measurement functionality provided by the R&S®CMW500 wideband radio communication tester to perform LTE transmitter and receiver measurements according to this test specification.
|7BM83: MHL2.0 Compliance Testing7BM83: MHL2.0 Compliance Testing||14.05.2013|
The MHL standard specifies the transmission of high-definition audio and video data on five individual lines, as well as the exchange of bidirectional control information and the supply of power from the sink to the source. Over 200 million portable CE devices - such as mobile phones, tablet PCs and cameras - already use this interface to present content onto larger screens. To ensure functionality and interoperability, every new MHL-capable device must, before entering the market, undergo thorough tests at an authorized test center (ATC) in line with the compliance test specification (CTS) issued by the MHL Consortium. This application note provides an overview of the MHL technology and also describes the Rohde & Schwarz compliance test solution for the system part of the current MHL2.0 standard version.
|7BM103: ISDB-T Transmitter Measurements for Acceptance, Commissioning and Maintenance7BM103: ISDB-T Transmitter Measurements for Acceptance, Commissioning and Maintenance||13.05.2013|
Broadcasting transmitters are subject to particularly stringent standards with respect to broadcast signal quality, because even small faults can lead to service disruptions for many viewers. A single instrument, the R&S®ETL TV analyzer, performs all required ISDB-T transmitter measurements, from the initial acceptance testing for the transmitter, to measurements performed during commissioning and preventive maintenance.
|1GA62: Test Automation Tool for POLQA® and PESQ® Speech Quality Tests1GA62: Test Automation Tool for POLQA® and PESQ® Speech Quality Tests||08.05.2013|
This application note provides an application program for level alignment, test automation and reporting with PESQ, POLQA and delay measurements on the Audio Analyzer R&S UPV or R&S UPV66. An introductory section explains theoretical background, gives application hints and defines requirements for test signals.
|1GP85: Signals for LTE FDD Repeater Conformance Testing according to 3GPP TS 36.1431GP85: Signals for LTE FDD Repeater Conformance Testing according to 3GPP TS 36.143||26.04.2013|
This application note helps the user to configure a Rohde & Schwarz vector signal generator for LTE FDD repeater conformance testing. It explains step by step how to set up the baseband signal for the various test cases defined in the 3GPP Technical Specification 36.143.
The R&S®SMx vector signal generators provide predefined, LTE-conform test models and are therefore ideal for LTE repeater conformance testing. The test cases in TS 36.143 can be set up with a single instrument which provides all necessary test signals including the four specified repeater stimulus signals.
|1GP79: Top Ten SCPI Programming Tips for Signal Generators1GP79: Top Ten SCPI Programming Tips for Signal Generators||26.04.2013|
This application note is a programming guide. It briefly summarizes basic tips and information about SCPI programming for remote-controlling Rohde & Schwarz signal generators.
|1GP97: Higher Order MIMO Testing with the R&S®SMW200A Vector Signal Generator1GP97: Higher Order MIMO Testing with the R&S®SMW200A Vector Signal Generator||26.04.2013|
Due to its outstanding performance the R&S®SMW200A vector signal generator is ideal for testing MIMO receivers in a vast variety of applications offering maximum usability at minimum form factor. It can generate up to eight antenna signals simultaneously in its digital baseband – all standard-compliant and with antenna-specific coding. In addition, it can simulate the complete MIMO transmission channel with up to 16 fading channels, sufficient to emulate higher-order MIMO configurations such as 3x3, 4x4, and 8x2.
This application note explains how to use the SMW for testing higher order MIMO systems by presenting different key applications.
|1GP60: R&S MATLAB® Toolkit for Signal Generators1GP60: R&S MATLAB® Toolkit for Signal Generators||26.04.2013|
The R&S MATLAB® Toolkit for Signal Generators provides routines for remote controlling these instruments. Additional MATLAB® scripts turn I/Q vectors into the Rohde & Schwarz waveform file format for use with an ARB. This application note describes the installation and use of the R&S MATLAB® Toolkit on Microsoft Widows and Linux based systems.
|1MA179: WLAN 802.11n: From SISO to MIMO1MA179: WLAN 802.11n: From SISO to MIMO||26.04.2013|
This application note discusses WLAN standard IEEE 802.11n. It first describes the most important amendments to previous releases and the ambitious new measurement tasks. Then, it describes how to deal with these tasks using Rohde & Schwarz instruments. The main focus here is on transmission over several TX and RX antennas (MIMO). Building multistandard signals using Rohde & Schwarz generators is also described. Screenshots from the analyzer taken on 802.11n signals complete the document.
|1MA28: IQWizard - IQ Signal Measurement and Conversion1MA28: IQWizard - IQ Signal Measurement and Conversion||26.04.2013|
IQWizard is a tool for loading IQ signal files in various formats and measuring IQ signals with a FSx spectrum analyzer or ESx Receiver. The obtained IQ data in memory can be stored in various formats or be transmitted to an AMU / SMU with WinIQSIM™ or WinIQSIM2™.
|1MA189: TETRA Measurements1MA189: TETRA Measurements||26.04.2013|
TETRA, the TErrestrial Trunked RAdio, is the professional mobile radio standard (PMR) used world wide by governmental safety and security authorities and organizations, as well as by private utilities from energy suppliers through to transport. Rohde & Schwarz provide test instruments idealy suited for both the development and production of TETRA base stations and user equipment, as well as for network planning, network coverage and quality of service, network monitoring and optimization, maintenance, and service. This Application Note shows examples for measurements with R&S instruments covering the entire range of TETRA test requirements.
|1MA210: Testing LTE Release 9 Features1MA210: Testing LTE Release 9 Features||26.04.2013|
LTE – the fastest growing mobile radio standard – had its beginnings in 3GPP Release 8. Initial improvements and new features were implemented in Release 9. This Application Note describes the T&M methods for LTE Release 9 features using Rohde & Schwarz instruments.
|1GP99: Simulating Fading with R&S® Vector Signal Generators1GP99: Simulating Fading with R&S® Vector Signal Generators||26.04.2013|
During wireless transmission over the air a signal is subject to fading. Since fading can strongly influence the communication, devices such as mobile phones must be tested under real-world conditions to verify their performance. The Rohde & Schwarz vector signal generators R&SâSMW200A, R&SâSMU200A and R&SâAMU200A make it possible to perform such tests. Their integrated real-time fading simulators reproduce well-defined and repeatable real-world test scenarios to bring reality into your laboratory. A multitude of standard-compliant, preconfigured fading scenarios make the configuration as easy as possible.
This application note gives a brief introduction to fading and explains how to use the fading simulators in custom applications.
|1EF86: Testing LTE MIMO Signals using a R&S®RTO Oscilloscope1EF86: Testing LTE MIMO Signals using a R&S®RTO Oscilloscope||24.04.2013|
|7BM84: R&S®Time Code Inserter: Time Code-Based A/V Distortion Analysis7BM84: R&S®Time Code Inserter: Time Code-Based A/V Distortion Analysis||16.04.2013|
The Rohde & Schwarz R&S®VTC and R&S®VTE video testers assess audio/video signals from the user's perspective (application testing). They are used to evaluate signal quality and to identify faults reliably. The tests are based on a difference analysis between the audio/video signal being tested and a reference signal. The required synchronization can be achieved by using a unique identifier, called a time code. This time code is inserted using the R&S®Time Code Inserter software described in this application note. This application note describes how time codes work and how to add a time code to any A/V file.
|1MA126: Testing S-Parameters on Pulsed Radar Power Amplifier Modules1MA126: Testing S-Parameters on Pulsed Radar Power Amplifier Modules||11.04.2013|
This Application Note describes testing S-parameters under pulsed conditions with the R&S®ZVA vector network analyzer and either the ZVAX24 Extension unit with pulse modular option or the R&S®SMF signal generator with pulse modulator as a signal source.
In addition a constant power level calibration for applications requiring high drive power for test and measurement of device under test (DUT) is also included. A LDMOS S-band radar power transistor is used as example DUT. The pulse profile mode of the R&S®ZVA is used to analyze the time-dependent behavior of the DUT.
|1MA221: LTE: System Specifications and Their Impact on RF & Base Band Circuits1MA221: LTE: System Specifications and Their Impact on RF & Base Band Circuits||10.04.2013|
RF physical layer specifications (such as 3GPP TS36.104) describe a variety of requirements that the end equipment needs to meet. This application note provides insight into some of these specifications and how test & measurement equipment can simplify the task of deriving requirements for RF sub-systems.
|1EZ63: R&S®ZNB Vector Network Analyzer – Intermodulation Measurements Made Simple1EZ63: R&S®ZNB Vector Network Analyzer – Intermodulation Measurements Made Simple||27.03.2013|
This Application Note provides guidance on using the “Intermodulation Wizard” through an example measurement.
|1TD01: How to utilize the I/Q Software Interface of the R&S®RTO Oscilloscope with MATLAB® 1TD01: How to utilize the I/Q Software Interface of the R&S®RTO Oscilloscope with MATLAB®||14.03.2013|
This application note presents the I/Q Software Interface (R&S® K11 option) of the R&S®RTO in the context of remote applications. It demonstrates the basic operation, application examples, and an analysis in MATLAB®.
|1MA201: Measuring with Modern Spectrum Analyzers1MA201: Measuring with Modern Spectrum Analyzers||05.03.2013|
This application note examines both the theory and practice of state-of-the-art spectrum analysis by discussing specific measurements taken on an integrated RF amplifier.
The theoretical portion of this document first describes how modern spectrum analyzers are designed and how they work. That is followed by a brief characterization of today's signal generators, which are needed as a stimulus when performing amplifier measurements. The effects on the spectrum that are caused by the nonlinearity of real devices under test are derived mathematically.
|1EZ70: Multi-port calibration by using a two port calibration unit1EZ70: Multi-port calibration by using a two port calibration unit||06.02.2013|
Performing a multi-port calibration of a vector network analyzer (VNA) is straight forward by using either a calibration unit with the corresponding numbers of ports or single calibration standards. This paper shows how to perform a n-port multi-port calibration by using calibration unit with a lower number of ports than available of the vector network analyzer.
|1MA99: Guidance on Selecting and Handling Coaxial RF Connectors used with Rohde & Schwarz Test Equipment 1MA99: Guidance on Selecting and Handling Coaxial RF Connectors used with Rohde & Schwarz Test Equipment||16.01.2013|
Coaxial connectors are a key component in RF and microwave applications. Their importance and contribution to overall system performance is sometimes overlooked. This application note focuses on coaxial connectors found in RF and microwave applications, providing general information on the available types; how to take care of connectors and connector electrical properties. This information is essential for anyone specifying and using Rohde and Schwarz test and measurement equipment and will help with the selection of the correct types of coaxial connector, handling connectors to obtain accurate and repeatable measurements, and to maximize the longevity and performance of coaxial connectors.
|1MA153: Development Hints and Best Practices for Using Instrument Drivers1MA153: Development Hints and Best Practices for Using Instrument Drivers||01.01.2013|
The aim of this application note is to provide information regarding Rohde & Schwarz instrument drivers. This paper shall help application engineers and software developers to easily get an understanding of advanced techniques to develop test and measurement (T&M) applications by utilizing Rohde & Schwarz instrument drivers. Furthermore the nomenclature used for Rohde & Schwarz instrument drivers will be explained.
|1GP95: Testing FPGA-Based Hardware Emulators with Slow I/Q Signals 1GP95: Testing FPGA-Based Hardware Emulators with Slow I/Q Signals||10.12.2012|
During the design process of chipsets or modules, FPGA-based hardware emulators are utilized to perform early tests with real test and measurement instruments. These hardware emulators usually run at artificially reduced speed, but apart from that function like the finished design.
In this application note we explain how to test FPGA-based hardware emulators using Rohde & Schwarz vector signal generators for creating suitable real-time test signals at reduced sample rates. We further explain how to correctly adapt AWGN signal generation and fading simulation for “slow I/Q”.
|1MA185: Programming EMI Test Receivers1MA185: Programming EMI Test Receivers||01.12.2012|
This application note discusses several basic methods for reading and displaying measurement results from EMI test receivers. The included free programming example is small and easily comprehended, so that users can quickly learn how to program test receivers.
|1MA170: Introduction to Attribute Based Instrument Drivers1MA170: Introduction to Attribute Based Instrument Drivers||01.12.2012|
This white paper introduces a novel attribute based architecture for VXIplug&play instrument drivers. The presented architecture uses the attribute based concept of IVI-C instrument drivers to introduce a two-layer design for VXIplug&play instrument drivers. Moreover the use of attributes is shown for the Rohde & Schwarz Spectrum Analyzer (rsspecan) instrument driver.
|1MA219: Interaction of Intermodulation Products between DUT and Spectrum Analyzer 1MA219: Interaction of Intermodulation Products between DUT and Spectrum Analyzer||29.11.2012|
This white paper describes the interaction between intermodulation products generated by a device under test (DUT) and intermodulation products generated internally in a spectrum analyzer. The overall intermodulation distortion may be too optimistic or pessimistic. Examples demonstrating cancelling IM products and necessary steps to avoid an influence of the spectrum analyzer on the measurement results are outlined.
|1EF76: Improved Dynamic Range with Noise Correction1EF76: Improved Dynamic Range with Noise Correction||25.10.2012|
This application note provides information about spectral measurements with noise correction. The basic requirements and the limiting factors of a spectrum analyzer are explained. Dynamic range improvements by means of a noise correction is presented. Measurement examples show the improved performance of TOI measurements with noise correction.
|7BM76: Correlated Receiver Diversity Simulations with R&S®SFU7BM76: Correlated Receiver Diversity Simulations with R&S®SFU||19.10.2012|
Receiver diversity improves reception quality by using multiple antennas with a preferably low correlation factor between each other. This results in a more robust handling of multipath signals, since a deep fade will then not affect all received signals at the same time. However, the compact dimensions of handheld devices can introduce unwanted correlation due to their dense antenna spacing. In this case, the popular diversity test setup consisting of several independent transmitters will no longer serve the needs of a realistic simulation, since correlation effects have to be taken into account here. A clever solution is to operate the R&S®SFU in split-fading mode in combination with a second transmitter. This can be another R&S®SFU, the R&S®SFE, the R&S®SFE100 or the R&S®SMU200A. In this way, two diversity signals of adjustable correlation for any common broadcast standard are coded in realtime, while their individual multipath profile is precisely specified by the extensive features of the R&S®SFU fader module.
|1GA47: Calibrating Measuring Microphones and Sound Sources for Acoustic Measurements with Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV1GA47: Calibrating Measuring Microphones and Sound Sources for Acoustic Measurements with Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV||11.10.2012|
This application note explains how to use acoustic calibrations in order to be able to enter or read sound pressure level directly in the Audio Analyzer R&S® UPV. An application program is described which performs the necessary measurements for the calibration of microphones and loudspeakers, manages the calibration values and enters them into any appropriate user defined setup.
|7BM82: Apple iPad Remote Control for Broadcasting T&M Instruments 7BM82: Apple iPad Remote Control for Broadcasting T&M Instruments||02.10.2012|
When installed on an Apple iPad*, a remote desktop app provides a convenient way to remotely control measuring instruments over a WLAN connection.
This is especially helpful when using measuring instruments that do not have their own display such as the R&S®VTS or R&S®SFC.
The remote desktop app also gives users a detached way to control the instrument if, for example, the actual measuring instrument is installed in a place that is difficult to access.
* Apple and iPad are trademarks of Apple Inc.
|7BM71: Doc.A/74 ATSC Receiver Performance Tests Made Easy with the R&S®SFU Broadcast Test System and the R&S®SFE Broadcast Tester7BM71: Doc.A/74 ATSC Receiver Performance Tests Made Easy with the R&S®SFU Broadcast Test System and the R&S®SFE Broadcast Tester||27.09.2012|
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ruled that no later than February 17, 2009, all analog NTSC broadcasting must come to an end. It is therefore not surprising that the demand for ATSC receivers is high at the time this application note was published. ATSC TV sets and set-tops are subject to the ATSC recommended practice Doc.A/74 “Receiver Performance Guidelines” before they can be sold freely in the markets that adopted the standard. Although the number of tests defined in Doc.A/74 is less extensive then the ones for their DVB-T counterparts (EN62002, MBRAI), some clarification is nevertheless due.
|1EF85: Converting R&S I/Q data files1EF85: Converting R&S I/Q data files||21.09.2012|
This application note explains how to convert different Rohde&Schwarz I/Q file formats among each other using the supplied software tool.
|1MA206: T&M solutions for software defined radios (SDR)1MA206: T&M solutions for software defined radios (SDR)||15.09.2012|
After its initial implementation in civil mobile telephones, the concept of a software defined radio (SDR) has now started making inroads in radios used for military applications. This document provides an introduction to SDR as used for military radios and presents the relevant T&M solutions offered by Rohde & Schwarz.
|1CM96: HSDPA RF Measurements with the R&S®CMW500 in line with 3GPP TS 34.1211CM96: HSDPA RF Measurements with the R&S®CMW500 in line with 3GPP TS 34.121||17.08.2012|
Most of the HSDPA tests specified in the TS 34.121 for 3GPP Release-5 / -7 and -8 can be performed with an R&S®CMW500. This document provides a step-by-step guide on how to use a stand-alone R&S®CMW500 to perform HSDPA Tests (from Rel.5 up to Rel.8 / DC-HSDPA+) measurements on transmitter characteristics and receiver characteristics in line with TS 34.121 V9.5.0, clauses 5 and 6. A set of save files based on R&S®CMW500 firmware V3.0.10 for user equipment supporting Operating Band I with Power Class 4 is attached to this application note for easy recall of important settings while performing tests in line with the relevant specifications.
|1MA207: Introduction to Radar System and Component Tests1MA207: Introduction to Radar System and Component Tests||10.08.2012|
This White Paper provides a general overview of different military and commercial radar systems. It also touches some typical measurements challenges on such systems and their components.There is a complementary application note, a new version of the 1MA127 which provides information on radar test and measurement to the main target groups A&D and Automotive. Addtionally it provides an overview of core radar-related products from Rohde & Schwarz.
|1MA72: Using R&S instruments with Agilent ADS Software1MA72: Using R&S instruments with Agilent ADS Software||04.08.2012|
This Application Note presents means to integrate R&S Test and Measurement instruments into the Agilent® ADS® Design System. Methods to include R&S Instruments are presented, accompanied by a free-of-charge software solution which is provided with this application note. It makes it very easy to include R&S Instruments into your ADS environment and your design flow. Versions for both WINDOWS XP® and LINUX® operating systems are available.
|1GP70: Using S-Parameters with R&S®NRP-Z Power Sensors1GP70: Using S-Parameters with R&S®NRP-Z Power Sensors||27.07.2012|
Using S-parameters instead of a fixed offset makes measurements more accurate by accounting for the interaction between the sensor and a component. This shifts the sensor's reference plane from the sensor's RF connector to the input of the device that is being applied externally. This application note explains the fundamentals of using S-parameters and discusses some common applications in which S-parameter correction is useful. It also introduces a command line tool for updating S-parameter data in custom applications or in automated test setups.
|1MA178: The Y Factor Technique for Noise Figure Measurements1MA178: The Y Factor Technique for Noise Figure Measurements||25.07.2012|
This application note describes in detail the steps required to make a noise figure measurement on a spectrum analyzer using the “Y Factor” technique. Background equations are presented for each step of the calculation. In addition, guidelines are provided to ensure a repeatable measurement. Measurement uncertainty is then reviewed, including contributions due to the noise source, analyzer, and the DUT itself. Finally, a software utility is presented that automates the noise figure calculation using four measurements from a spectrum analyzer. The utility checks the measurement guidelines and highlights potential problem areas. It then calculates the noise figure for the DUT along with the measurement uncertainty.
|1CM100: Optimizing the Performance of Multi Eval. List Mode Tests1CM100: Optimizing the Performance of Multi Eval. List Mode Tests||17.07.2012|
The duration of a measurement in multi evaluation list mode is sensitive to the test setup. This document describes various methods to achieve optimized performance for such measurements. The availability of the methods depends on the CMW500 version.
|1GA61: Measurement of Acoustic Properties of Rooms Using Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV1GA61: Measurement of Acoustic Properties of Rooms Using Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV||10.07.2012|
Acoustic properties like reverberation time and early reflections are important for test rooms as well as for speech intelligibility and music performance in assembly rooms and concert halls. This application note explains the basics behind these properties and offers an application program for their measurement.
|1EF80: Speed considerations for Spurious Level Measurements with Spectrum Analyzers1EF80: Speed considerations for Spurious Level Measurements with Spectrum Analyzers||10.07.2012|
The measurement speed for spurious signal measurements is mainly defined by the spectrum analyzer sweep speed. With traditional swept spectrum analyzers and tight spurious limits the measurement can easily take hours or even a full day. This application note describes the differences in sweep speed between swept spectrum analyzers and modern spectrum analyzers with a wide-band FFT process, and how this improves the measurement speed for general spurious measurement.
|1EF79: Intermodulation Distortion Measurements on Modern Spectrum Analyzers1EF79: Intermodulation Distortion Measurements on Modern Spectrum Analyzers||02.07.2012|
This Application Note describes the differences in intermodulation distortion measurements between traditional spectrum analyzers with analog narrow-band IF signal path and modern spectrum analyzers using a wide-band IF signal path and digital RBW filters.
|1GA60: Using Application Programs for Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV in Remote Control1GA60: Using Application Programs for Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV in Remote Control||30.06.2012|
Most application notes for audio analyzer R&S® UPV include an application program which runs locally using the universal sequence controller option UPV-K1. This application note explains how sequence control programs can be modified to run on a remote PC using remote control option UPV-K4.
|1GA59: Recording Measurement Results over Time with Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV1GA59: Recording Measurement Results over Time with Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV||29.06.2012|
This application note describes how measurement results can be logged over time in the audio analyzer R&S® UPV. A Visual Basic.NET application program is included which stores results to ASCII files.
|1MA202: Next-Generation (3G/4G) Voice Quality Testing with POLQA®1MA202: Next-Generation (3G/4G) Voice Quality Testing with POLQA®||30.05.2012|
POLQA® (Perceptual Objective Listening Quality Analysis) is the next-generation mobile voice quality testing standard according to recommendation ITU-T P.863 and has been especially developed for the super wideband requirements of HD Voice, 3G, VoLTE (4G), VoHSPA and VoIP. This white paper describes the POLQA® algorithm implemented in the R&S® UPV Audio Analyzer and shows an example hardware setup for standard independent audio measurements.
|1MA85: Field Strength and Power Estimator1MA85: Field Strength and Power Estimator||25.05.2012|
Determining the field strength from transmitted power is not an easy job. Various, quite complicated formulas have to be evaluated correctly. This application note explains, how to calculate electric and magnetic field strength and power flux density. A program associated to this application note helps to do the calculation and converts Watts to mW and dBm, V/m to mV/m and dBmV/m as well as A/m to mA/m and dBmA/m. Additional applications are calculation of propagation loss or antenna factors. This application is also available for iPhone, iPod Touch and Android Smartphones. It can be downloaded free-of-charge from the App Store and the Android Market respectively.
|RAC-0607-0019: Measurement of Dielectric Material PropertiesRAC-0607-0019: Measurement of Dielectric Material Properties||23.05.2012|
This application note describes the techniques to measure the dielectric properties of materials using a vector network analyzer. It also shows methods for converting the s-parameters to dielectric properties.
|1MA168: Starting Successfully with the R&S®EX-IQ-Box1MA168: Starting Successfully with the R&S®EX-IQ-Box||23.05.2012|
The R&S EX-IQ-Box serves as a digital baseband interface between a device under test (DUT) and Rohde & Schwarz generators, analyzers and radio communication testers. The DigIConf software supplied with the device controls up to four R&S EX-IQ-Boxes in a test setup and can thus output IQ data for feeding into a DUT while simultaneously receiving IQ output from a DUT.To work together smoothly, the DUT, the R&S EX-IQ-Box and the R&S test instruments have to be configured properly. The purpose of Application Note 1MA168 is to introduce the right 'initial steps' required to get started successfully.
|1MA192: 802.11ac Technology Introduction1MA192: 802.11ac Technology Introduction||23.05.2012|
This white paper provides a brief technology introduction on the 802.11ac amendment to the successful 802.11-2007 standard. 802.11ac provides mechanisms to increase throughput and user experience of existing WLAN and will build on 802.11n-2009.
|1ER04: Benefits of R&S®RTO digital trigger system1ER04: Benefits of R&S®RTO digital trigger system||11.04.2012|
The trigger is a key element of an oscilloscope. It captures specific signal events for detailed analysis and provides a stable view on repeating waveforms. Since its invention in the 1940s the oscilloscope trigger has experienced continuous enhancements. The fully digital trigger of the R&S®RTO digital oscilloscopes sets an innovation milestone that brings significant advantages for the oscilloscope user in terms of measurement accuracy, acquisition density, and functionality. This application note introduces the working principles of a conventional trigger system and explains the advantages of the real-time capable digital trigger of the RTO oscilloscopes.
|1MA177: LTE Terminal Tests under Fading Conditions with R&S®CMW500 and R&S®AMU200A 1MA177: LTE Terminal Tests under Fading Conditions with R&S®CMW500 and R&S®AMU200A||27.03.2012|
This application note shows how to perform LTE terminal block error rate (BLER) and throughput tests under fading conditions with the R&S®CMW500 Protocol Tester and the R&S®AMU200A Fading Simulator.
|1GP89: Remote Emulation with the R&S®SMB100A RF and Microwave Signal Generator1GP89: Remote Emulation with the R&S®SMB100A RF and Microwave Signal Generator||20.03.2012|
The R&S®SMB100A RF and microwave signal generator offers a remote emulation feature that makes it possible to control the instrument by commands other than the built-in native SCPI commands. This feature allows the user to replace signal generators, e.g. from other manufacturers, with the R&S®SMB100A without having to change the remote control code. This application note describes how to use the remote emulation feature in general. Furthermore, it describes in detail the remote emulation for each supported instrument, limitations of the individual emulations and the remaining differences between the emulated and the original commands.
|1EZ62: Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers1EZ62: Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers||16.03.2012|
This application note describes how to configure a Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzer to make spectral measurements directly on a device under test.
|1GP69: R&S®NRP-Z Power Sensor Programming Guide1GP69: R&S®NRP-Z Power Sensor Programming Guide||06.03.2012|
The R&S®NRP-Z power sensors from Rohde & Schwarz represent the latest in power measurement technology. They offer all the functionality of conventional power meters, and more, within the small housing of a power sensor. This application note serves as a coding guide for situations in which the R&S®NRP-Z power sensors are to be used in custom test and measurement software.
|1EF78: Measurement of Harmonics using Spectrum Analyzers1EF78: Measurement of Harmonics using Spectrum Analyzers||02.03.2012|
This Application Note focuses on measurement of harmonics using modern spectrum analyzers. It highlights the source of harmonics before focusing on their measurement using a spectrum analyzer. The Application Note also explains the benefits of the R&S FSW’s high pass filter option for harmonic measurements.
|1GP53: Arbitrary Waveform Sequencing with Rohde & Schwarz Vector Signal Generators1GP53: Arbitrary Waveform Sequencing with Rohde & Schwarz Vector Signal Generators||29.02.2012|
Sequencing of waveforms is a technique used to play back multiple test signals fast and flexibly using an arbitrary waveform generator (ARB). Multiple ARB waveforms can be combined to generate all kinds of test signals sequences. Switching from one waveform to the subsequent waveform in the sequence is instantaneous, which enables high-speed operation for production testing.
This application note explains how to generate such signal sequences using vector signal generators from Rohde & Schwarz. The examples provided show the required instrument settings and possible fields of application for waveform sequencing.
|1GP83: Remote Emulation with the R&S®NRP2 Power Meter1GP83: Remote Emulation with the R&S®NRP2 Power Meter||28.02.2012|
The R&S®NRP2 power meter offers a remote emulation feature that makes it possible to control the instrument by commands other than the built-in native SCPI commands. This feature allows the user to replace power meters, e.g. from other manufacturers, with the R&S®NRP2 power meter without having to change the remote control code.
This application note describes how to use the remote emulation feature in general. Furthermore, it describes in detail the remote emulation for each supported instrument, limitations of the individual emulations and the remaining differences between the emulated and the original commands.
|1GP90: Remote Emulation with the R&S®SMC100A Signal Generator1GP90: Remote Emulation with the R&S®SMC100A Signal Generator||28.02.2012|
The R&S®SMC100A signal generator offers a remote emulation feature that makes it possible to control the instrument by commands other than the built-in native SCPI commands. This feature allows the user to replace signal generators, e.g. from other manufacturers, with the R&S®SMC100A without having to change the remote control code.
This application note describes how to use the remote emulation feature in general. Furthermore, it describes in detail the remote emulation for each supported instrument, limitations of the individual emulations and the remaining differences between the emulated and the original commands.
|1MA205: HSPA+ Technology Introduction - White Paper1MA205: HSPA+ Technology Introduction - White Paper||14.02.2012|
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) optimize UMTS for packet data services in downlink and uplink, respectively. Together, they are referred to as High Speed Packet Access (HSPA). Within 3GPP Release 7, 8, 9 and 10, further improvements to HSPA have been specified in the context of HSPA+ or HSPA evolution. This White Paper introduces key features of HSPA+ and outlines the changes to the radio interface.
|1MA180: R&S®FSH4Remote1MA180: R&S®FSH4Remote||09.02.2012|
FSH4Remote is a free-of-charge program for connecting the R&S®FSH4/8 handheld spectrum analyzer or the R&S®FSC spectrum analyzer to a remote computer, and for providing remote control of the functions from the computer. It runs under Windows and Linux operating systems. This application note describes the easy use of FSH4Remote to control the R&S®FSH/FSC and read the trace.
|1MA139: Production Measurements on 3GPP WCDMA Femtocells1MA139: Production Measurements on 3GPP WCDMA Femtocells||02.02.2012|
Femtocells or Home base stations are an important development for cellular networks. This application note describes the tests commonly used during the production of Femtocells, focusing on WCDMA, HSPA, and HSPA+ technology. Tests, test plans and hardware setups for Femtocells with and without receiver diversity are detailed. Find hints about the instrument settings and have a look at typical measurement results. An introduction to simulating GPS / A-GPS signals for testing the GPS receiver of a Femtocell completes the paper.
|1GP56: 802.11 Packet Error Rate Testing1GP56: 802.11 Packet Error Rate Testing||09.01.2012|
When measuring the performance of 802.11 wireless LAN compatible receivers, Packet Error Rate (PER) tests are the method of choice today. This application note describes a simple way to conduct PER tests using signal generators on any 802.11 device, independent of their physical layer design (11b, 11a or 11g). The application software works with standard Windows™ drivers on any card independent of manufacturer. No additional hardware specific software is needed. Easy setup of the source signal is included with direct upload to an SMIQ or AMIQ.
|1MA137: PESQ® Measurement for WCDMA with R&S®CMUgo1MA137: PESQ® Measurement for WCDMA with R&S®CMUgo||05.01.2012|
Recent mobile test methods could not evaluate the quality of data reduced speech signals with different coded and decoded signals. The Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) provides the solution for this measuring problem. WCDMA PESQ is an add-on tool for CMUgo for automatic measurement of the PESQ for WCDMA mobile phones according to recommendation ITU-T P.862.1 featuring selectable fading profiles and variable Additional White Gaussian Noise (AWGN).
|1MA119: PESQ® Measurement for GSM with R&S®CMUgo1MA119: PESQ® Measurement for GSM with R&S®CMUgo||05.01.2012|
Recent mobile test methods could not evaluate the quality of data reduced speech signals with different coded and decoded signals. The Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) provides the solution for this measuring problem. GSM PESQ is an add-on tool for CMUgo for automatic measurement of the PESQ for GSM mobile phones according to recommendation ITU-T P.862.1 featuring selectable fading profiles, frequency hopping sequences and variable Additional White Gaussian Noise (AWGN).
|1MA136: PESQ® Measurement for CDMA2000® with R&S®CMUgo1MA136: PESQ® Measurement for CDMA2000® with R&S®CMUgo||05.01.2012|
Recent mobile test methods could not evaluate the quality of data reduced speech signals with different coded and decoded signals. The Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) provides the solution for this measuring problem. CDMA2000® PESQ is an add-on tool for CMUgo for automatic measurement of the PESQ for CDMA2000® mobile phones according to recommendation ITU-T P.862.1 featuring selectable fading profiles and variable Additional White Gaussian Noise (AWGN).
|1MA123: Tests on CDMA2000® 1xEV-DO Access Terminals in Accordance to IS-866-A1MA123: Tests on CDMA2000® 1xEV-DO Access Terminals in Accordance to IS-866-A||05.01.2012|
The Universal Radio Communication Tester R&S®CMU200 can perform most of the CDMA2000® 1xEV-DO access terminal (AT) tests specified in the standard IS-866-A on its own. Some tests require additional instruments. This application note shows how to perform these tests easily with the remote-control software CMUgo, using the R&S®CMU200 in combination with R&S®SMU, R&S®AMU, R&S®SMJ or R&S®SML signal generators, and R&S®FSQ, R&S®FSU, R&S®FSP, R&S®FSL or R&S®FSMR spectrum analyzers.
|1MA86: Additional Tests on CDMA2000® Mobile Stations in Accordance with Standard TIA-981MA86: Additional Tests on CDMA2000® Mobile Stations in Accordance with Standard TIA-98||05.01.2012|
Most of the tests specified in the standard TIA-98 that a CDMA2000 mobile station has to fulfill can be performed by the Universal Radio Communication Tester R&S®CMU200 without further assistance. Other tests, however, require additional instruments, for instance for generating interfering signals. Some tests of the standard TIA-98 need features that a tester optimized for production cannot offer, for example high dynamic spectrum analysis up to 12.75 GHz. This Application Note shows how to perform these tests easily with the remote-control software CMUgo, using the R&S®CMU200 in combination with R&S®SMU, R&S®SMJ, R&S®SMIQ, or R&S®SML signal generators, and R&S®FSQ, R&S®FSU, R&S®FSP, or R&S®FSL spectrum analyzers. New test items and sequences will therefore be included in the CMUgo software v1.9.8 to remote-control the R&S®CMU200, as well as the signal generators and spectrum analyzers. They are presented in this Application Note.
|1MA87: Testing HSDPA UE RX Diversity1MA87: Testing HSDPA UE RX Diversity||05.01.2012|
Application Note 1MA87 has been replaced by 1MA130.
|1CM95: WCDMA RF Measurements with the R&S®CMW500 according to 3GPP TS 34.1211CM95: WCDMA RF Measurements with the R&S®CMW500 according to 3GPP TS 34.121||16.12.2011|
Most of the tests specified in standard TS 34.121 for 3GPP Rel-99 can be performed with R&S®CMW500. This document provides a step by step guide on how to perform Rel-99 measurements on transmitter/receiver characteristics, and performance tests according to TS 34.121 V9.5.0 clauses 5 and 6 with standalone R&S®CMW500. A set of *.sav files based on R&SCMW500 firmware V2.1.20 for UE supporting band I with power class 3 in RMC 12.2 kbps downlink/uplink is attached to this application note.
|7BM_ADD01: Digital TV Rigs and Recipes7BM_ADD01: Digital TV Rigs and Recipes||10.12.2011|
Describtion and explanation of the MPEG and DVB-Standards and TV T&M
|1MA176: Coexistence Digital TV and LTE1MA176: Coexistence Digital TV and LTE||08.12.2011|
Spectrum that was previously reserved for TV broadcasting is being freed up in many countries for use under the new Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile radio standard (keyword: 'digital dividend'). As a result, numerous coexistence scenarios are possible. So network operators and manufacturers from both the mobile radio and the broadcast sector have a vital interest in avoiding any interference and performing in-depth testing of their products. Rohde & Schwarz offers a wideranging product portfolio for such applications. This Application Note presents Test & Measurement equipment for the broadcast and mobile radio sector and discusses some possible test setups.
|1SP02: Usage of Data Reduction in R&S®EMC32-K10 EMI Auto Test Templates1SP02: Usage of Data Reduction in R&S®EMC32-K10 EMI Auto Test Templates||16.11.2011|
The ‘Data Reduction’ sequence step is an essential part of an EMI Auto Test since it evaluates the relevant frequencies at which the final measurements are to be done. The intention of this application note is to make the data reduction data flow more transparent (contents of input and output tables) and how the parameters (location and relations) influence the evaluation algorithm.
|1SP16: Recording and Playing Back the GPS RF Spectrum1SP16: Recording and Playing Back the GPS RF Spectrum||10.11.2011|
A GPS L1-frequency signal is recorded using a receiver such as an R&S TSMW or an &S FSV. Then the I/Q data is stored via the digital I/Q interface on an R&S IQR device. Playback is realized using an R&S SMBV signal generator that is also connected to an R&S IQR via a digital I/Q interface.
|1EF82: Measurement of WLAN 802.11 ac signals1EF82: Measurement of WLAN 802.11 ac signals||22.09.2011|
This application note provides a guide through the measurements for IEEE 802.11ac WLAN transmitter signals using the general purpose OFDM analysis software R&S FS-K96.
|1SP10: Mobile WiMAX Throughput Measurements1SP10: Mobile WiMAX Throughput Measurements||15.09.2011|
This application note explains the basics of data throughput measurements for the mobile WiMAX™ air interface. In addition it provides the throughput reference measurement setup based on the R&S®CMW270 or R&S®CMW500, including representative results.
|1SP12: Two-Channel Method for OTA Performance Measurements of MIMO-enabled Devices1SP12: Two-Channel Method for OTA Performance Measurements of MIMO-enabled Devices||29.08.2011|
Modern wireless communication technologies such as LTE, HSPA+ and WiMAX include the MIMO technology to achieve increased speed for data transmission. Existing Over-the-air (OTA) test systems need to be upgraded to support MIMO as well. This white paper summarizes a straightforward and cost-effective approach to verify the OTA performance of MIMO-enabled devices. Measurements of receiver sensitivity and throughput are evaluated with statistical metrics.
|1MA181: VAMOS Technology Introduction1MA181: VAMOS Technology Introduction||17.08.2011|
Existing GSM mobile communication systems have the potential to double voice capacity by adding the “Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One Slot” (VAMOS) feature as specified in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) Release 9 specifications. This application note describes the VAMOS feature from an air interface perspective in detail and specifically illustrates the VAMOS testing solution offered by Rohde & Schwarz test equipment.
|1GP80: 3GPP FDD and LTE Multicell and Multi-UE Scenarios with the R&S®SMU200A Signal Generator1GP80: 3GPP FDD and LTE Multicell and Multi-UE Scenarios with the R&S®SMU200A Signal Generator||10.08.2011|
This application note describes how to set up 3GPP FDD and LTE multicell and multi-UE scenarios with the R&S®SMU200A with a focus on routing and leveling of the baseband signals. Furthermore, it describes in detail how to determine the correct AWGN settings, i.e. how to calculate the required signal-to-noise ratio for the various scenarios.
|1GA57: Printing Tool for Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV1GA57: Printing Tool for Audio Analyzer R&S®UPV||18.07.2011|
This application note provides a tool for printing a report about measurement results on the audio analyzer R&S® UPV. The executable can be freely configured to include any result graphs and figures into the report. In addition it is an application example for a class library which can be included into custom application programs to add a printing function.
|1GA56: Swept Harmonic Distortion Measurements1GA56: Swept Harmonic Distortion Measurements||16.07.2011|
This application note provides a program which allows to record total harmonic distortion, single harmonic distortion factors and level with one generator sweep. The executable may be installed and used without caring about programming. The source code is provided as basis for custom modifications.
|1MA199: Channel Sounding in White Space Spectrum1MA199: Channel Sounding in White Space Spectrum||13.07.2011|
The aim of channel sounding is to characterize a radio channel by decomposing the radio propagation path into its individual multipath components. This application note provided by Neul describes how channel sounding can be performed using the R&S SMBV100A Vector Signal Generator and the R&S FSL Spectrum Analyzer. To illustrate the procedure reference is made to 8 MHz wide white space channels in the UK.
|1MA84: HSDPA - Challenges for UE Power Amplifier Design1MA84: HSDPA - Challenges for UE Power Amplifier Design||11.07.2011|
This Application Note describes the HSDPA uplink channel structure. Challenges for UE power amplifier design are outlined, and guidelines how to use R&S measurement equipment for testing UE power amplifiers are provided. An outlook on High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) and the impact of HSUPA on the uplink channel structure is given.
|1GA55: Harmonic Distortion Measurements in the Presence of Noise1GA55: Harmonic Distortion Measurements in the Presence of Noise||06.07.2011|
This application note investigates and discusses the influence of wideband noise on harmonic distortion measurements.
|1SP15: Remote Control of ROMES on Windows 71SP15: Remote Control of ROMES on Windows 7||05.07.2011|
For optimization of mobile communication networks, drive tests with coverage measurement systems are being performed. The coverage measurement platform provided by Rohde & Schwarz is based on R&S® ROMES, which is the application software to define and setup measurement devices, acquire and store the measurement data and displaying measured data during the measurement period and a later replay. Additional drivers are used for attaching different measurement devices, such as the Rohde & Schwarz Universal Radio Network Analyzers TSMQ or TSMW or test mobiles from different manufacturers. Depending on the required measurement tasks, R&S® ROMES can be configured freely to adapt to the user’s needs. As long as the measurements are performed in an outdoor environment using a vehicle traveling around, size and weight of the measurement system is not a problem. As more and more measurements are performed in an indoor environment by walking around, size, weight and mechanical handling is an issue of interest. ROMES® can be used in a light weight configuration, which is small enough to be carried in a back pack. For use of R&S® ROMES with R&S® TSMW in an indoor environment, the Backpack System R&S® TSMW-Z3 has been designed. The system includes a mini PC with R&S® ROMES which needs to be controlled remotely. This application note describes, how to establish a Wireless Lan Access Point on the R&S® ROMES PC and to setup a wireless LAN connection between an Apple iPad® and the mini PC.
|1CM75: R&S®CMW500 Digital IQ with CADENCE Emulator1CM75: R&S®CMW500 Digital IQ with CADENCE Emulator||30.06.2011|
This application note explains how to bring a CADENCE system which is attached to an R&S EX-IQ-BOX into service for the first time. The first part of the document shows how to setup an LTE Demo without using a UE design. This setup uses the R&S CMW500 as the downlink transmitter. The emulator receives the downlink via an R&S EX-IQBOX and passes it to an R&S spectrum analyzer (R&S FSx) via a second R&S EXIQ-BOX. The second part describes the real wiring using up- and downlink. This will only work if a UE design is available on the emulator.
|1GA50: Calibration Tool for PESQ Speech Quality Tests1GA50: Calibration Tool for PESQ Speech Quality Tests||30.06.2011|
PESQ measurements employ a level adaptation algorithm and are hence widely insensitive to absolute level. However, if the tests are performed via a speech codec, the driving level of the codec has an influence on the MOS result. Therefore careful alignment of the level is required. This application note provides an application program which runs on the Audio Analyzer R&S UPV or R&S UPV66 and can be used to calibrate signal levels for the PESQ measurement.
|1ER02: The Impact of Digital Oscilloscope Blind Time on Your Measurements1ER02: The Impact of Digital Oscilloscope Blind Time on Your Measurements||17.05.2011|
All digital oscilloscopes are temporarily blind. During this blind time the user will miss critical signal events at his device under test. Thus, it is necessary to understand the impact of blind time to the measurement. This application note explains the background of blind time and points out why a high acquisition rate is important. It furthermore explains the R&S RTO oscilloscope capabilities and how they help for faster debugging, measurement and analysis.
|1ER03: The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope1ER03: The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope||13.05.2011|
The effective number of bits (ENOB) is a way of quantifying the quality of an analog to digital conversion. A higher ENOB means that voltage levels recorded in an analog to digital conversion are more accurate. In an oscilloscope the ENOB is not just determined by the quality of the analog to digital converter but by the instrument as a whole. This application note explains how to measure the oscilloscope ENOB and shows results for the R&S®RTO for different settings.
|1MA197: Voice and SMS in LTE1MA197: Voice and SMS in LTE||11.05.2011|
This white paper summarizes the technology options for supporting voice and short message service (SMS) in LTE, including circuit switched fallback (CSFB), SMS over SGs, and voice over LTE (VoLTE). It includes background information on the standardization process, and the commercial implications for the different options. The white paper also addresses test and measurement requirements resulting from the support of voice and SMS in LTE.
|1MA148: Pulse Train Master for the R&S Signal Generators1MA148: Pulse Train Master for the R&S Signal Generators||10.05.2011|
This Application Note describes a software program that provides easy creation and transfer of Pulse Trains between a PC and the R&S SMB100A, R&S SMA100A and R&S SMF100A analog signal generators with the Pulse Train option; or between a PC and the ARB of R&S SMBV100A, R&S SMJ100A or R&S SMU200A vector signal generators.
|1EF71: Analysis of Jitter with the R&S®FSUP Signal Source Analyzer1EF71: Analysis of Jitter with the R&S®FSUP Signal Source Analyzer||05.04.2011|
This application note describes how to characterize RMS jitter with the R&S FSUP signal source analyzer. The instrument can distinguish random jitter and periodic jitter easily and measure all parameters of interest. New feature: A filter function can be used for jitter calculation to simulate the frequency response of the PLL in the DUT.
|1GP61: R&S MATLAB® Toolkit for R&S®NRP-Z Sensors1GP61: R&S MATLAB® Toolkit for R&S®NRP-Z Sensors||05.03.2011|
The R&S MATLAB® Toolkit for R&S® NRP-Z Sensors provides routines for remote controlling these instruments via USB or the R&S® NRP Power Meter. This application note describes how to access the sensors using the R&S® VXI PnP driver. It also contains a set of scripts that perform commonly needed tasks, such as opening a sensor connection or performing measurements.
|1MA21: RF-Level Test System +20 dBm to -130 dBm1MA21: RF-Level Test System +20 dBm to -130 dBm||18.02.2011|
The purpose of the test setup described is to ensure or to enhance the level accuracy of signal generators or the generator part of communication testers. The level accuracy of test signals is particularly important at low levels when measuring BER level sensitivity at digital communication receivers. The highly linear FSP spectrum analyzer is used in combination with a power meter to get the best possible accuracy with high measurement speed over a very wide level range.
|1EF77: Implementation of Real-Time Spectrum Analysis1EF77: Implementation of Real-Time Spectrum Analysis||03.02.2011|
This White Paper describes the implementation of real-time capabilities within the R&S®FSW (with option K160R) and the R&S®FSVR. It shows fields of application as well as the technical implementation.
|1MA161: LTE Bitstream Verification1MA161: LTE Bitstream Verification||02.02.2011|
Verification of baseband data is an important step in the early development phase of LTE/LTE-A-ready products. Comparison values for baseband data (test vectors) from other sources can be very useful in order to verify the correct implementation of the standard. Option K81 for the R&S®SMx200A vector signal generator offers sample data for LTE at the bit level. The reference data enables users to test their own implementation of the specification. The LTE bit stream verification program shown here uses data generated by this option and offers a (bitwise) comparison with bit streams generated for an LTE downlink signal. Therefore it demonstrates, how easy the option R&S SMx-K81 can be integrated into the simulation and design process during the development of LTE/LTE-A handsets or base stations.
|1ES48: EDGE Timeslot Errors Measurements with R&S®FSIQ1ES48: EDGE Timeslot Errors Measurements with R&S®FSIQ||22.01.2011|
An FSE (or FSIQ) Spectrum Analyser equipped with the Vector Analysis option (FSE-B7) can measure a wide range of error types (EVM, Magnitude Error, Phase Error…) on continous signal. This Application Note describes how to measure these errors on a single burst between symbols.
|7TS02: The Crest Factor in DVB-T (OFDM) Transmitter Systems and its Influence on the Dimensioning of Power Components7TS02: The Crest Factor in DVB-T (OFDM) Transmitter Systems and its Influence on the Dimensioning of Power Components||22.01.2011|
Are there really power peaks that are 20 dB above the average value? Yes, there are. Ever since the introduction of digital transmission technology, it has been necessary to deal with such orders of magnitude. RF power components must be suitably dimensioned to handle the expected voltage peaks and avoid breaking down. If we can determine the crest factor, i.e. the ratio of the peak value to the average or RMS value, with sufficient accuracy (even though it can only be assessed statistically), then we will have solved the question of dimensioning power components. This Application Note is intended to help with this problem by providing some useful insights including basic formulas, some statistical background and a practical look at the limiting factors when it comes to dealing with real transmitter systems.
|7EB01: ATSC Mobile DTV7EB01: ATSC Mobile DTV||22.01.2011|
This application note describes ATSC Mobile DTV standard A/153, ATSC-M/H. This standard is completely implemented in the R&S®AEM100 ATSC-M/H Emission Multiplexer.
|1GP62: Importing Data in ARB, Custom Digital Modulation and RF List Mode1GP62: Importing Data in ARB, Custom Digital Modulation and RF List Mode||22.12.2010|
The foregoing application note is intended for everyone who desires to become more familiar with the use and upload of custom data in ARB, digital modulation and RF list mode. Particularly, this note describes the instruments R&S® SMU200A, R&S® SMJ100A and R&S® SMATE200A and provides an overview of already available solutions as well as it gives hints for the writing of own applications. The ARB Toolbox software is discontinued. The replacement product is the new ARB Toolbox PLUS - please see 1GP88.
|1GP66: Selecting a Signal Generator for Testing AD Converters1GP66: Selecting a Signal Generator for Testing AD Converters||16.12.2010|
Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) have taken giant steps in speed over the past decade: Sampling rates of 250 mega-samples per second at 16-bit resolution are now commonplace. Such devices allow high-speed video processing and even software defined radio (SDR) applications, where digitization is being performed at ever-higher intermediate frequencies (IF). This has clearly raised the bar for ADC test equipment, especially regarding the noise performance of the analog input signal and sample clock sources used in the test setup. Since the price of a signal source rises with performance, carefully selecting a generator with the most suitable specifications has become worthwhile if not mandatory.
|1MA105: TraceRecorder - Software Tool for Storing Trace Data1MA105: TraceRecorder - Software Tool for Storing Trace Data||08.12.2010|
Unattended observation of spectrum occupancy for finding spurious emissions or seldom-occuring interferers is a common task for spectrum analyzers. Sometimes spectrum data has to be monitored over quite a long period of time. TraceRecorder, a small, free-of-charge software tool for storing measurement data from Rohde & Schwarz spectrum analyzers helps you to perform this measurement task. Running on a PC, it connects to the spectrum analyzer via a LAN interface. For stand alone operation, it is possible to run it directly on a spectrum analyzer, eliminating the need for an additonal computer during data acquisition.
|1GA54: Using R&S audio analyzers in remote control applications to replace the Agilent 8903B1GA54: Using R&S audio analyzers in remote control applications to replace the Agilent 8903B||24.11.2010|
This Application Note describes how the R&S® UPV and R&S® UPP200 audio analyzers can be used to replace the obsolete Agilent model 8903B audio analyzer in remote control applications.
|1GA51: Generating the Noise Field for Ambient Noise Rejection Tests1GA51: Generating the Noise Field for Ambient Noise Rejection Tests||12.10.2010|
This application note describes how to generate the noise field for ambient noise rejection tests according to 3GPP TS 26.132, sections 7.9 and 8.9.
|1EF70: Measurement of phase-, timing- and gain offset between 2 signals using multiple spectrum analyzers1EF70: Measurement of phase-, timing- and gain offset between 2 signals using multiple spectrum analyzers||28.09.2010|
This application note describes how to measure the coherence (phase-, timing and gain-differences) between two RFSignals using Rohde&Schwarz spectrum analyzers, a Rohde&Schwarz signal generator and the R&S FS-Z10 Coherence Unit.
|7BM78: Measuring Color-Reproduction Quality on TVs and Monitors7BM78: Measuring Color-Reproduction Quality on TVs and Monitors||13.08.2010|
This application note presents means to determine the quality of color-reproduction on TVs and monitors using the R&S®DVSG Digital Video Signal Generator in combination with the Konica Minolta CS-2000 spectroradiometer and the accompanying Konica Minolta CS-S10w analysis software.
|1EF75: Using Harmonic External Mixers To Extend the Frequency Range1EF75: Using Harmonic External Mixers To Extend the Frequency Range||06.08.2010|
This application note gives a short summary on how to use harmonic mixers in combination with Rohde & Schwarz Signal and Spectrum Analyzers. Focus of this application note is the use of conversion loss tables with different R&S analyzers. It also provides a tool to convert different formats of the conversion loss tables.
|7BM26: Signals produced by SAF and SFF - Standard M/NTSC and M/PAL7BM26: Signals produced by SAF and SFF - Standard M/NTSC and M/PAL||05.08.2010|
- not available -
|1SP30: GPIB to LAN Converter for OSP1SP30: GPIB to LAN Converter for OSP||03.08.2010|
Some of the new Rohde & Schwarz instruments, such as the R&S®OSP and R&S®FSC, only have a LAN interface. To be able to operate these instruments in a purely GPIB system, a converter must be connected between the instrument and the GPIB. Rohde & Schwarz now offers such a GPIB to LAN converter.
|1MA167: IEEE 802.16m Technology Introduction1MA167: IEEE 802.16m Technology Introduction||29.07.2010|
IEEE 802.16m is an amendment to the release IEEE 802.16-2009 standard. The goal set out in 802.16m is to develop an advanced air interface to meet the requirements for IMT-Advanced next generation networks while still supporting legacy 802.16 OFDMA system. This white paper will focus on some of the key features of 16m and provide comparisons to the 802.16-2009 OFDMA PHY (also referred to as 16e) with explanations of the motivations behind for the advanced features in 802.16m.
|1EF74: Remote Monitoring and Control of the R&S®FSVR with a Web Browser1EF74: Remote Monitoring and Control of the R&S®FSVR with a Web Browser||27.07.2010|
This application note describes remote operation or monitoring of the real time spectrum analyzer R&S® FSVR through a standard web browser. The common cross-platform technology Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is used as a server on the instrument.
|1ER01: Remote Monitoring and Control of the R&S®RTO with a Web Browser1ER01: Remote Monitoring and Control of the R&S®RTO with a Web Browser||27.07.2010|
This application note describes remote operation or monitoring of the R&S® RTO digital oscilloscope through a standard web browser. The common cross-platform technology Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is used as a server on the instrument.
|1GA52: Averaging of 1/n Octave Spectra1GA52: Averaging of 1/n Octave Spectra||19.07.2010|
Application program and documentation for averaging of 1/n octave spectra on the audio analyzer UPV.
|1GA53: Simple Sequencing Tool for SCPI Commands1GA53: Simple Sequencing Tool for SCPI Commands||19.07.2010|
Application program with documentation for sending a sequence of logged SCPI commands to the firmware of the R&S® Audio Analyzer UPV.
|1SP11: WiMAX MIMO multipath performance measurements1SP11: WiMAX MIMO multipath performance measurements||12.07.2010|
This application note explains the basics of MIMO Multipath Performance Measurments for the Mobile WiMAX air interface under multipath conditions using R&S®CMW270 or R&S®CMW500 and R&S®AMU200.
|1MA163: Filter Design and Optimization Using the R&S®ZVA/ZVB/ZVT Integrated with AWR® EDA Software1MA163: Filter Design and Optimization Using the R&S®ZVA/ZVB/ZVT Integrated with AWR® EDA Software||01.06.2010|
This application note describes how to integrate R&S®ZVA/ZVB/ZVT vector network analyzers with AWR's electronic design automation (EDA) software. Measured data can be exported using the AWR® TestWave™ tool via GPIB/LAN and verified with simulated data. Basic filter design is simplified with the AWR® iFilter™ filter synthesis wizard, an optimization tool that can be introduced to correlate measured data with simulated data.
|1GP75: Easy Generation of Wideband Signals1GP75: Easy Generation of Wideband Signals||28.05.2010|
This Application Note describes the generation of radio frequency signals from wideband I/Q waveforms using the R&S®AFQ100B UWB signal and I/Q modulation generator in combination with the R&S®SMBV100A vector signal generator.
|1MA174: Connectivity of R&S® Test Solutions with AWR® Visual System Simulator™ (VSS)1MA174: Connectivity of R&S® Test Solutions with AWR® Visual System Simulator™ (VSS)||20.05.2010|
This application note describes how to connect R&S® test and measurement products quickly and seamlessly to AWR® Visual System Simulator™ (VSS) via a GPIB or LAN interface. Using AWR® Connected™ customized for Rohde & Schwarz hardware and R&S® WinIQSIM2™ signal simulation software, the flexibility of digital radio standards is highlighted and its integration into VSS is demonstrated.
|RAC-0605-0004: FSx_RecordPlay SoftwareRAC-0605-0004: FSx_RecordPlay Software||20.05.2010|
FSxRecordPlay is a program for recording the trace data in frequency and time domain from Rohde & Schwarz spectrum analyzers and measurement receivers via IEEE bus, LAN/Internet or internal remote control connection. The stream waveform data can be played back and analyzed directly in this software with variable speed.
|1EF72: Optimum PLL settings for Phase Noise Measurements with the R&S®FSUP1EF72: Optimum PLL settings for Phase Noise Measurements with the R&S®FSUP||04.05.2010|
The application note has a focus on the theoretical background of the PLL measurement method and illuminate its application in the R&S FSUP. Based on measurement examples on different sources, the loop settings for optimum measurement performance are discussed.
|7BM75: Easy Analysis and Precise Optimization of ATSC or ATSC Mobile DTV Single-Frequency Networks7BM75: Easy Analysis and Precise Optimization of ATSC or ATSC Mobile DTV Single-Frequency Networks||21.04.2010|
Keeping an ATSC (or ATSC Mobile DTV) single-frequency network (SFN) running smoothly not only requires that every single TV transmitter functions properly – the RF performance criteria echo pattern and frequency deviation also have to be strictly complied with. The R&S®ETL TV analyzer enables operators to check these crucial RF parameters at a glance with unmatched precision. The patented implementation achieves an echo delay resolution of one nanosecond, which is nearly a hundred times higher than in conventional approaches. This allows more precise control and adjustments of the several transmitters within the ATSC (or ATSC Mobile DTV) SFN and thus helps to ensure excellent coverage for the receivers.
|1EF63: Level Uncertainty Calculation for R&S®FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer1EF63: Level Uncertainty Calculation for R&S®FSV Signal and Spectrum Analyzer||21.04.2010|
This application note helps to understand the measurement uncertainty calculation for a modern spectrum analyzer and provides a tool to calculate the total measurement uncertainty for different measurements.
|7BM77: Lip-Sync Measurement (AV Delay) for TV Displays7BM77: Lip-Sync Measurement (AV Delay) for TV Displays||21.04.2010|
Determining the delay of the video signal in relation to the audio signal aids evaluation of the quality of screens with an audio output. In some cases, such delays can reach as much as 100ms, which can cause significant irritation. This delay occurs because videosignal processing requires more computing power than audio-signal processing. The measurement solution described in this application note analyzes delays of up to +-400ms at a resolution in the order of µs.
|1MA173: Carrier Aggregation for IEEE 802.16m. Signal Generation and Analysis1MA173: Carrier Aggregation for IEEE 802.16m. Signal Generation and Analysis||22.03.2010|
This Application Note describes signal generation with carrier aggregation for 802.16m based on 802.16e signals in practical important configurations using one or more Vector Signal Generators R&S SMU200A or R&S SMBV100A. Various examples illustrate how to analyze these signals using the Vector Signal Analyzer R&S FSQ, R&S FSG or R&S FSV.
|1GP50: Guidelines for MIMO Test Setups – Part 11GP50: Guidelines for MIMO Test Setups – Part 1||10.03.2010|
Multiple antenna systems, known as MIMO systems, form an essential part of today’s wireless communications standards. This multi-antenna technology efficiently boosts the data throughput without requiring additional bandwidth, and has thus become a key technology. Rohde & Schwarz offers high-performance MIMO test solutions which provide static conditions without fading as well as simulation of complex fading scenarios.
This application note explains how to set up 4x4 and 8x8 MIMO systems using the R&S®SMBV100A signal generator for measurements under static conditions without fading.
For simulation of complex fading scenarios please refer to application note 1GP97.
|1MA172: Measurements on DVB-S2 Transmitters1MA172: Measurements on DVB-S2 Transmitters||09.02.2010|
This application note provides information about measurements on DVB-S2 transmitters, including Amplitude Phase Shift Keying (APSK) signals. Specifically, this note will discuss how to import APSK mapping files in order to make modulation quality measurements.
|1MA134: Easy LTE/E-UTRA Base Station Testing acc. to 3GPP TS 36.1411MA134: Easy LTE/E-UTRA Base Station Testing acc. to 3GPP TS 36.141||11.11.2009|
Application Note 1MA134 has been replaced by 1MA154.
|7BM14: Automatic Measuring in Standard M/PAL using a M/NTSC Video Analyzer R&S®UAF or Video Measurement System VSA7BM14: Automatic Measuring in Standard M/PAL using a M/NTSC Video Analyzer R&S®UAF or Video Measurement System VSA||02.11.2009|
- not available -
|7BM68: ANSI/SCTE 40 Conformance Testing Using the R&S®SFU, R&S®SFE and R&S®SFE1007BM68: ANSI/SCTE 40 Conformance Testing Using the R&S®SFU, R&S®SFE and R&S®SFE100||29.10.2009|
The Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE) defined the ANSI/SCTE 40 specification: Digital Cable Network Interface Standard. ANSI/SCTE 40 tests are designed to test conformance of set-top boxes and other cable receiving equipment to ensure that they will operate correctly when installed in a cable system. The tests are a combination of noise (AWGN and phase noise), AM hum, micro-reflections, digital and analog adjacent channels, and other discrete interferences. These impairments are found on most cable systems to some degree. Rohde & Schwarz provides set-top box manufacturers with an easy solution to perform conformance testing in line with ANSI/SCTE 40 by using the R&S®SFU broadcast test system and the R&S®SFE100 broadcast tester. The R&S®SFU is able to perform most of the test procedures in one unit. Furthermore, additional test transmitters allow the simulation of full channel loading. This Application Note explains the specific test requirements, a possible setup, and the configuration using the R&S®SFU/SFE100.
|1MA17: GPIBFind1MA17: GPIBFind||28.10.2009|
This application note introduces the program GPIB-Bus Device Finder GPIB FIND.The GPIB-Bus Device Finder GPIB FIND helps you identify the devices connected to a GPIB (IEC or IEEE) bus. It shows the addresses of these devices and their response to the identity query (*idn?). Additionally GPIB FIND helps you to locate GPIB problems with GPIB card installation, incorrect address setting or broken cables. GPIB FIND includes an additional program to send (write) a message to a device or to receive (read) a message from the device.
|1MA102: Introduction to MIMO Systems1MA102: Introduction to MIMO Systems||22.10.2009|
Application Note 1MA102 has been replaced by 1MA142.
|1GP51: Guidelines for MIMO Test Setups – Part 21GP51: Guidelines for MIMO Test Setups – Part 2||14.10.2009|
Multiple antenna systems, known as MIMO systems, form an essential part of today’s wireless communications standards. The multi-antenna technology efficiently boosts the data throughput without requiring additional bandwidth or transmit power and has thus become a key technology. Rohde & Schwarz offers compact and versatile MIMO test solutions with realtime fading including simulation of channel correlations.
This application note explains how to set up Rohde & Schwarz signal generators for 2x2, 4x2 and 2x4 MIMO tests with a focus on signal routing, synchronization of the generators, and leveling.
Please note that there is a successor application note available: 1GP97. It explains how to use the R&S®SMW200A vector signal generator for testing higher order MIMO systems such as 3x3 and 4x4.
|1CM72: Operation Guide for HSDPA Test Setup according to 3GPP TS 34.1211CM72: Operation Guide for HSDPA Test Setup according to 3GPP TS 34.121||13.10.2009|
Most of the tests specified in standard TS 34.121  for 3GPP Rel-5 can be performed with R&S®CMU200. This document provides a step by step guide on how to perform Rel-5 measurements on transmitter characteristics, receiver characteristics and performance tests according to TS 34.121 V8.7.0 clauses 5, 6 and 9 with standalone R&S®CMU200. Test cases that require additional instruments, e.g. fading generator (R&S®SMU200A or R&S®AMU200A) will be discussed in brief in this application note with recommended reference. A set of *.sav files based on R&S®CMU200 firmware V5.03 for UE supporting operating band I with power class 3 in RMC 12.2 kbps + HSDPA is attached to this application note.
|RCS0712-0053: Operation Guide for HSUPA Test Set-up According to 3GPP TS 34.121RCS0712-0053: Operation Guide for HSUPA Test Set-up According to 3GPP TS 34.121||08.10.2009|
This operation guide describes how to measure HSUPA test cases according to 3GPP TS 34.121 V8.0 with R&S®CMU200. Setting files according to the test requirements are attached.
|1CM73: Operation Guide for HSUPA Test Setup according to 3GPP TS 34.1211CM73: Operation Guide for HSUPA Test Setup according to 3GPP TS 34.121||07.10.2009|
Most of the tests specified in standard TS 34.121  for 3GPP Rel-6 can be performed with R&S®CMU200. This document provides a step by step guide on how to perform Rel-6 measurements on transmitter characteristics and performance tests according to TS 34.121 V8.7.0 clauses 5 and 10 with stand-alone R&S®CMU200. Test cases that require additional instruments, e.g. fading generator (R&S®SMU200A or R&S®AMU200A) will be discussed in brief in this application note with recommended reference. A set of *.sav files based on R&S®CMU200 firmware V5.03 for UE supporting operating band I and power class 3 in RMC 12.2 kbps + HSPA is attached to this application note.
|1MA149: VoIP Measurements for WiMAX1MA149: VoIP Measurements for WiMAX||23.09.2009|
This application note describes the necessary steps and configuration to perform VoIP speech and audio quality measurements of a WiMAX data module.
|7EB02: Upgrade to ATSC Mobile DTV7EB02: Upgrade to ATSC Mobile DTV||22.09.2009|
This application note illustrates the upgrade from the available wireless TV standard ATSC to its expansion ATSC Mobile DTV described in the new standard A/153 (ATSCM/H), in which Rohde & Schwarz has played a major development role. An upgrade package makes it possible to efficiently extend existing ATSC infrastructures for ATSC Mobile DTV services. A central component of the ATSC Mobile DTV equipment is the R&S®AEM100 multiplexer. Together with the R&S®AVE264 H.264 Encoders, digital TV exciter (R&S®SX800) and Transmitters, it forms a complete ATSCM/H system.
|1MA150: Cell search and cell selection in UMTS LTE1MA150: Cell search and cell selection in UMTS LTE||17.09.2009|
This application note explains the fundamentals of the cell search and cell selection and reselection procedures required for both modes of UMTS Long Term Evolution: FDD and TDD. It describes how to generate and analyze the required signals using Rohde & Schwarz test and measurement solutions. The application note also shows how to perform interoperability tests and terminal conformance tests according to the baseline of the 3GPP specifications for protocol conformance and Radio Resource Management (RRM).
|1MA109: CDMA2000® Base Station Tests With the R&S®SMU200A Vector Signal Generator and Rohde & Schwarz Spectrum Analyzers1MA109: CDMA2000® Base Station Tests With the R&S®SMU200A Vector Signal Generator and Rohde & Schwarz Spectrum Analyzers||15.09.2009|
This Application Note describes measurements compliant with the CDMA2000® base station standard described in 3GPP2 C.S0010-C v2.0 / TIA/EIA-97-F-1. The primary focus is on solutions for generating and analyzing CDMA2000 signals. The special characteristics that make the selected signal generators and signal analyzers highly suitable for this purpose are detailed, and remote control programming is demonstrated by means of a free-of-charge program.
|1MA112: 1xEV-DO – Test Solutions1MA112: 1xEV-DO – Test Solutions||14.09.2009|
This application note provides a summary of the current test solutions available with Rohde & Schwarz equipment. The opportunities provided by the individual devices are presented briefly and a demonstration using a spectrum analyzer and a vector signal generator is described.
|1MA108: Bluetooth® Basics at a Glance1MA108: Bluetooth® Basics at a Glance||14.09.2009|
This Application Note provides a brief look at the most important parameters and terms in Bluetooth®. It also covers new developments such as Enhanced Data Rate ( version 2.0+EDR ).
|1MA111: UMTS Long Term Evolution (LTE) Technology Introduction1MA111: UMTS Long Term Evolution (LTE) Technology Introduction||14.09.2009|
Even with the introduction of HSDPA and HSUPA, evolution of UMTS has not reached its end. To ensure the competitiveness of UMTS for the next 10 years and beyond, UMTS Long Term Evolution (LTE) is being specified in 3GPP release 8. LTE, which is also known as Evolved UTRA and Evolved UTRAN, provides new physical layer concepts and protocol architecture for UMTS. This application note introduces LTE technology and testing aspects.
|1MA53: Out of Band Spurious Measurements for Bluetooth Modules1MA53: Out of Band Spurious Measurements for Bluetooth Modules||28.08.2009|
This application notes describes the out of band spurious emission measurement for Bluetooth Modules as defined in the RF Test specification for Bluetooth V0.9. It includes a program demonstrating conducted measurements performed remotely using a spectrum analyser FSIQ, FSP, FSU or FSQ.
|1MA60: GSM/GPRS/Edge Receiver Tests Under Fading Conditions with CMU and SMIQ/ABFS1MA60: GSM/GPRS/Edge Receiver Tests Under Fading Conditions with CMU and SMIQ/ABFS||28.08.2009|
This application note describes how to generate GSM signals for wide ranging receiver tests under fading conditions for GSM/GPRS/Edge. The test setup requires an R&S Radio Communication Tester CMU with IQ-IF interface option CMU-B17 and an R&S vector signal generator SMIQ or baseband fading simulator ABFS for generating GSM. The GSMFadLevCor program included with this application note performs a semi automatic level correction of the power fed to the Device Under Test (DUT).
|1GP76: Generation of Vector Signals at Microwave Frequencies1GP76: Generation of Vector Signals at Microwave Frequencies||28.07.2009|
Vector signals at microwave frequencies can easily be generated by the direct upconversion of I/Q baseband signals. A versatile and cost-efficient solution consists of an R&S®SMF100A microwave signal generator combined with a baseband source (e.g. the R&S®AFQ100A) and an external I/Q mixer. This application note describes how to perform the frequency upconversion.
|1SP56: Guideline for Scanner-based Drive Tests1SP56: Guideline for Scanner-based Drive Tests||28.07.2009|
This guideline gives the customers of Rohde & Schwarz an insight into using Drive Test Scanners compared with test mobiles. It shows the main benefits and features of scanners, and emphasizes the advantages of the Rohde & Schwarz Drive Test Scanners TSML, TSMU and TSMQ.
|RCS0812-0065: Generation of Test Signals acc. ISO 14708 for Testing of Cardiac PacemakersRCS0812-0065: Generation of Test Signals acc. ISO 14708 for Testing of Cardiac Pacemakers||15.07.2009|
This application note describes how to generate test signals with Rohde & Schwarz signal generators of the R&S® SMx family (R&S®SMA100A, R&S®SMF100A, R&S®SML, R&S®SMT, and R&S®SMIQ) to perform interference testing on implantable medical devices using a small application software.
|1MA51: DVB-T - Bursted Noise Signal Generation1MA51: DVB-T - Bursted Noise Signal Generation||08.07.2009|
DVB-T Bursted Noise is a tool for generation of DVB-T compatible noise signals. The IQ data can tranferred to WinIQSIM™ / WinIQSIM2™ for further processing and transmission to an AMU, AFQ, AMIQ, SMU, SMIQ.
|1MA142: Introduction to MIMO1MA142: Introduction to MIMO||02.07.2009|
Modern radio communication systems have to provide higher and higher data rates. As conventional methods like using more bandwidth or higher order modulation types are limited, new methods of using the transmission channel have to be used. Multiple antenna systems (Multiple Input, Multiple Output – MIMO) gives a significant enhancement to data rate and channel capacity. This application note gives an introduction to basic MIMO concepts and terminology and explains how MIMO is implemented in different radio communications standards.
|1CM74: CDMA2000® 1xEV-DO Rel. B Non-Signaling Testing1CM74: CDMA2000® 1xEV-DO Rel. B Non-Signaling Testing||29.06.2009|
This R&S® CMU200 1xEV-DO Release B non-signaling testing application provides the means to allow users to perform RF measurements on a 1xEV-DO Rel. B access terminal in a mode that does not require any signaling. This allows the calibration and final tests of a Rel. B AT, according to the minimum performance standards with the R&S® CMU200.
|1MA147: Using the Digital Baseband Interface R&S®EX-IQBox with R&S®Signal Analyzers and Agilent® ADS® Software1MA147: Using the Digital Baseband Interface R&S®EX-IQBox with R&S®Signal Analyzers and Agilent® ADS® Software||26.06.2009|
Your measurement task: To analyze an RF module via its digital interface. This Application Note explains how. As interfaces between the baseband and the RF modules of mobile radio base stations and terminals are increasingly digital, instruments for testing such modules need digital baseband interfaces as well. The R&S®EX-IQ-Box is a digital interface adapter that provides digital baseband I/O for Rohde & Schwarz signal generators and signal analyzers. An R&S signal analyzer with digital baseband interface R&S®FSQ-B17 can analyze digital baseband components input from the R&S®EX-IQ-Box. Data collected with a test-setup consisting of an R&S signal analyzer and the digital interface adapter R&S®EX-IQ-Box can be used in an Agilent ADS environment. For details of how to input the results to ADS, see Application Note 1MA72: 'Using R&S® Instruments within Agilent®ADS®Software'
|1GP64: Converting Existing Waveform Files from R&S®AMIQ or Binary into R&S®SMU200A or R&S®AFQ100A Format1GP64: Converting Existing Waveform Files from R&S®AMIQ or Binary into R&S®SMU200A or R&S®AFQ100A Format||18.06.2009|
This application note describes how to use the Rohde & Schwarz software tool ‘RsBatchConvert.exe’ for the conversion of binary data or WinIQSIM generated AMIQ waveforms into the new waveform format. The tool not only rescales I/Q data contained in the file but also changes the K-option requirement from WinIQSIM Kxx to the new WinIQSIM2 K2xx options. Thus, new instruments with installed K2xx options may be used to continue using existing waveform files.
|1GA48: Measurement of Maximum Sound Pressure Level of Headphones according to EN503321GA48: Measurement of Maximum Sound Pressure Level of Headphones according to EN50332||17.06.2009|
This application note explains how to use the Audio Analyzer R&S UPV for measurements of maximum sound pressure level of headphones according to EN50332. It is possible to measure a combination of music player / FM receiver and headphones, the maximum output voltage of a player / FM receiver alone or the wideband characteristic voltage of headphones alone. An application program is available for download as installer file and as VB.NET project.
|1MA100: Interchangeable Port Connector System, Test Port Adapter System1MA100: Interchangeable Port Connector System, Test Port Adapter System||05.06.2009|
A Test Port Adapter System is implemented for all Rohde & Schwarz equipment, which operates above 26 GHz in order to protect the RF front-end from mechanical damage. The Test Port Adapter System consists of an RF front-end interface called the Test Port Adapter Body, and the Test Port Adapter Head which is attached to the Body. The Head provides an interface to a cable or device under test. This Application Note identifies the various types of Test Port Adapters, their parameters, compatibilities and usages.
|1EF64: Noise Figure Measurement in the 60 GHz Frequency Range1EF64: Noise Figure Measurement in the 60 GHz Frequency Range||12.05.2009|
This application note describes how noise figure and gain of amplifiers or converters in the microwave range from 50 GHz to 67 GHz are measured. For this purpose the R&S FSU67 spectrum analyzer is equipped with application firmware R&S FS-K30 in combination with the Noisecom NC5115-60G, or NC5115-60GT Noise Figure Test Set.
|1EZ59: S-Parameters of a 50 to 75 Ohm impedance matching device using R&S®ZVx VNA1EZ59: S-Parameters of a 50 to 75 Ohm impedance matching device using R&S®ZVx VNA||06.05.2009|
This document describes how the advanced calibration techniques of the ZVA Vector Network Analyzers can solve the challenges of measuring the S-Parameters on impedance matching devices. The document describes the concept and setup required to perform the calibration of the ZVA and making the measurement. The procedure described in this application note applies to the ZVB and ZVT Vector Network Analyzers as well.
|1EZ58: R&S®ZVA & R&S®ZVT NWA: Mixer Measurements with R&S®ZVA-K41EZ58: R&S®ZVA & R&S®ZVT NWA: Mixer Measurements with R&S®ZVA-K4||06.05.2009|
This document describes the typical measurements performed on mixers and how they can be implemented on the ZVA Vector Network Analyzer with the ZVA-K4 Frequency Conversion option. The document describes the concept and setups required to perform Conversion Loss, Isolation, Intermodulation and Reflection measurements.
|1CM71: Operating Guide for WCDMA Test Setup according to 3GPP TS34.1211CM71: Operating Guide for WCDMA Test Setup according to 3GPP TS34.121||15.04.2009|
Most of the tests specified in standard TS 34.121 for 3GPP Rel-99 can be performed with R&S®CMU200. This document provides a step by step guide on how to perform Rel-99 measurements on transmitter/receiver characteristics, and performance tests according to TS 34.121 V8.4.0 clauses 5, 6 and 7 with standalone R&S®CMU200. Test cases that require additional instuments e.g. fading simulator (R&S®SMU200A or R&S®AMU200A) or spectrum analyzer (R&S®FSQ) will be discussed in brief in this application note with recommended reference. A set of *.sav files based on R&SCMU200 firmware V5.02 for UE supporting band I with power class 3 in RMC 12.2 kbps downlink/uplink is attached to this application note.
|1GA49: Psychoacoustic Audio Quality Measurements Using R&S®UPV Audio Analyzer1GA49: Psychoacoustic Audio Quality Measurements Using R&S®UPV Audio Analyzer||03.04.2009|
This application note gives background information about the psychoacoustic measurements PESQ® (Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality) and PEAQ® (Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality). It also describes how to perform these measurements using the Rohde & Schwarz Audio Analyzer.
|1MA144: How to Run WCDMA BER/ BLER Tests Using R&S Vector Signal Generators1MA144: How to Run WCDMA BER/ BLER Tests Using R&S Vector Signal Generators||06.03.2009|
This application note shows how to run 3GPP WCDMA BER and BLER tests according to standard TS 25.141 with the Vector Signal Generators R&S®SMBV100A, R&S®SMJ100A, or R&S®SMU200A. The description of hardware test setup is followed by detailed instructions on how to configure the R&S® generators and how to run a BER or BLER test step by step. Remote control commands for the generators are included, to simplify integrating the BER/BLER tests into your proprietary test suite.
|1EF68: Phase Noise Measurement up to 50 GHz with High Dynamic Range1EF68: Phase Noise Measurement up to 50 GHz with High Dynamic Range||18.02.2009|
This application note describes how to configure the signal source analyzer R&S FSUP for highest dynamic range phase noise measurement in the microwave frequency range up to 50 GHz. It compares performance in terms of phase noise sensitivity using an additional internal down converter versus an external down converter or a frequency divider. Both methods are described and differences are shown.
|1MA141: RF Transient Analysis Software1MA141: RF Transient Analysis Software||16.02.2009|
This application note describes a software application that can be utilized in conjunction with Rohde&Schwarz Signal- and Spectrum Analyzers and Signal Source Analyzers to capture and analyze transient signals. The software application takes advantage of the instrument’s IQ memory buffer of up to 705 Msamples to capture and analyze IQ signals in the time domain and / or frequency domain. This is useful for measuring lock time, analyzing radar pulses, finding spurious transients, and other measurements similar in nature to these. This application can be used with R&S®Signal Source Analyzer FSUP and R&S®Signal and Spectrum Analyzers FSQ, FSU, FSG, FSV.
|1EF69: Time Domain Oscillator Stability Measurement - Allan variance1EF69: Time Domain Oscillator Stability Measurement - Allan variance||11.02.2009|
This application note gives a short summary on the Allan variance as a measure of frequency stability and an example on how to calculate it, with measurement results from R&S spectrum analyzers. A software program to sample data from R&S spectrum analyzers and calculate the Allan variance is available.
|1SP52: Voice Quality Measurements with R&S®ROMES SQA1SP52: Voice Quality Measurements with R&S®ROMES SQA||10.02.2009|
This document introduces Voice Quality Measurements and describes the configuration of the R&S ROMES Software as well as the R&S ROMES Speech Server. It gives advice and offers interpretations of the measurement data.
|1EF61: Using the Equalizer Filter in the VSA Application Firmware for R&S Spectrum Analyzer and Signal Analyzer1EF61: Using the Equalizer Filter in the VSA Application Firmware for R&S Spectrum Analyzer and Signal Analyzer||06.02.2009|
The R&S spectrum analyzers and signal analyzers offer an additional equalizer filter in the Vector Signal Analysis Application Firmware R&S FSQ-K70/FSx-B73, which is a powerful tool for measurement and analysis of vector-modulated signals. This application note describes the functionality of the equalizer filter and how to set the filter parameter manually in an accurate and fast way.
|1GP67: Phase Adjustment of Two MIMO Signal Sources with Option B901GP67: Phase Adjustment of Two MIMO Signal Sources with Option B90||21.01.2009|
This Application Note is intended for anyone who needs to adjust RF phases of two or more signal generator outputs. Specifically, it explains how to achieve optimal results using the PhaseTracker PC software (which can be downloaded from the same website) for controlling R&S®SMATE200A, R&S®SMU200A, R&S®SMJ100A and R&S®SMBV100A fitted with option B90 and a spectrum analyzer from Rohde & Schwarz.
|1EF67: Remote Monitoring and Control of the R&S®FSV with a Web Browser1EF67: Remote Monitoring and Control of the R&S®FSV with a Web Browser||15.01.2009|
This application note describes remote operation or monitoring of the signal and spectrum analyzers R&S® FSV3, R&S® FSV7, R&S® FSV13, R&S® FSV30 through a standard web browser. The common cross-platform technology Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is used as a server on the instrument.
|1MA135: Path Compensation for MS Fading Tests1MA135: Path Compensation for MS Fading Tests||09.01.2009|
As well as static tests, modern mobile communication standards also stipulate measurements under fading conditions, sometimes with additional white gaussian noise AWGN. Rohde & Schwarz supports these tests with the combination of the R&S®CMU200 Radio Communication Tester and the R&S®SMU200A or R&S®AMU200A Vector / Baseband Signal Generator and Fading Simulator. Applying fading and noise always raises the crest factor of a signal considerably. Thus, automatic path attenuation inside the R&S® baseband fader prevents the new signal peaks from being clipped at I/Q full scale. Any additional attenuation in the baseband, however, makes the RF output fall below its intended level. This application note shows how to achieve an accurate RF output level by compensating for the I/Q attenuation - without modifying the test setup or using additional instruments.
|1EF66: Remote Monitoring and Control of the R&S®FSL with a Web Browser1EF66: Remote Monitoring and Control of the R&S®FSL with a Web Browser||07.01.2009|
This application notes describes remote operation or monitoring of the spectrum analyzers R&S® FSL3, R&S® FSL6, R&S® FSL18 through a standard web browser. The common cross-platform technology Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is used as a server on the instrument.
|1MA138: RF chipset verification for UMTS LTE (FDD) with R&S®SMU200A and R&S®FSQ1MA138: RF chipset verification for UMTS LTE (FDD) with R&S®SMU200A and R&S®FSQ||19.12.2008|
This application note describes how to verify and validate a LTE (FDD) RF chipset using R&S® SMU200A vector signal generator, R&S® FSQ signal analyzer and R&S® EX-IQ Box. The related signal generation as well as signal analysis is described
|1GP65: Upconverting Modulated Signals to Microwave with an External Mixer and the R&S®SMF100A Microwave Signal Generator1GP65: Upconverting Modulated Signals to Microwave with an External Mixer and the R&S®SMF100A Microwave Signal Generator||18.12.2008|
A vector-modulated microwave signal can be generated by mixing an I/Q-modulated signal with a microwave carrier. This Application Note describes the frequency upconversion using a standard passive mixer. The basics of mixer operation are introduced and the conversion process is demonstrated in detail with a test setup and corresponding measurements. The mixer selection guide will make it easier to choose a proper mixer for individual applications.
|1MA130: Measurements on 3GPP UE's according to TS34.121 with R&S®CMUgo: Tests with combined Instruments1MA130: Measurements on 3GPP UE's according to TS34.121 with R&S®CMUgo: Tests with combined Instruments||09.12.2008|
Most of the tests specified in standard TS 34.121 that 3GPP WCDMA user equipment (UE) has to fulfill can be performed solely by the Universal Radio Communication Tester CMU200 universal radio communication tester. Other tests, however, require additional instruments for generating one or more interfering signals, for fading setup or for high dynamic spectrum analysis. This application note shows how easy it is to perform these tests with the remote-control software CMUgo, using the CMU200 in combination with R&S signal generators and R&S spectrum analyzers.
|7BM74: Reproducible Quality Analysis of Deinterlacing and Motion Portrayal for Digital TV Displays7BM74: Reproducible Quality Analysis of Deinterlacing and Motion Portrayal for Digital TV Displays||01.12.2008|
The specialized R&S®MULTI-MOTION test sequences offered by the R&S®DVSG Digital Video Signal Generator permit a reproducible quality analysis of deinterlacing and motion portrayal for digital television (TV) displays. This makes it possible to study all potential degradations resulting from the progressive conversion separately. It also allows the various motion artefacts resulting from liquid crystal (LCD), plasma (PDP), and digital micromirror (DMD) technologies to be quantified. This application note explains how to draw specific conclusions from the sequence output on the test display.
|1SP55: TSMW Digital I/Q Interface Option K11SP55: TSMW Digital I/Q Interface Option K1||28.11.2008|
This application note describes how to perform user specific RF measurements in block and continuous streaming mode using the R&S®TSMW and the R&S®TSMW-K1 option. The R&S®TSMW is a universal Radio Network Analyzer for IQ streaming and drive testing of mobile communication networks.
|7BM73: Converting MediaFLO™ Waveform Files to R&S®SFU / SFE / SFE100 ARB Format Using IQWIZARD/WinIQSIM™ for R&S®SFx-K35 ARB7BM73: Converting MediaFLO™ Waveform Files to R&S®SFU / SFE / SFE100 ARB Format Using IQWIZARD/WinIQSIM™ for R&S®SFx-K35 ARB||10.11.2008|
This application note introduces the methods to convert MediaFLO™ waveform files to ARB format to be used with R&S® Broadcast Signal Generators SFx-K35 ARB Generator. R&S® IQWIZARD and WinIQSIM™ software are used, providing a quick and simple file conversion method.
|1EF65: Measurement on generic OFDM Signals1EF65: Measurement on generic OFDM Signals||17.10.2008|
This application note illustrates the operation of the OFDM measurement software R&S FSQ-K96. It describes applications, setup, features, settings and results. Further it concentrates on generating the configuration file for R&S FSQ-K96, the appropriate IQ data files for Signal Analyzer R&S FSQ and waveform files for R&S Signal Generators. With this description the user obtains a complete R&S test solution for signal generation and analysis of generic OFDM signals.
|1MA133: Convert NMEA 0183 to waypoint files for R&S®SMU200A1MA133: Convert NMEA 0183 to waypoint files for R&S®SMU200A||26.09.2008|
This application note describes how to convert GPS routes from NMEA 0183 file format to waypoint files that can be used by the R&S®SMU200A Vector Signal Generator.
|1MA131: Calibration and Verification of GCT Wave 2 WiMAX chipsets1MA131: Calibration and Verification of GCT Wave 2 WiMAX chipsets||04.07.2008|
Rohde & Schwarz offers complete non signalling & signalling based Production Test Solutions for WiMAX Chipsets: From “single box” test solutions, using the R&S® CMW270 WiMAX Communication Tester, to traditional multi-instrument setups, using the R&S® SMJ100A Signal Generator together with the R&S® FSL Spectrum Analyser, Rohde&Schwarz provides a time and cost effective test solution. The implementation of chipset specific Auto Test Software enables automatic Rx/Tx measurements and the realisation of a fast calibration routine.
|1MA54: UTRA-FDD Receiver Tests Under Fading Conditions with CMU and ABFS1MA54: UTRA-FDD Receiver Tests Under Fading Conditions with CMU and ABFS||25.06.2008|
This application note describes how to connect a communication tester CMU200 with B-17 (IQ-IF interface option) to a ABFS fading simulator with B-49 dynamic fading option (3GPP) for generating signals under fading conditions. An additional program performs a semi automatic level correction of power fed to the user equipment.
|1GP71: Remote Emulation Modes with R&S Signal Generators1GP71: Remote Emulation Modes with R&S Signal Generators||24.06.2008|
Signal generators are often used in automated test environment applications. The replacement of those instruments, e.g., due to malfunction or standard replacement procedures requires special care to be taken in consideration. Replacement of those instruments requires compabitiblity between the replacement and the replaced device in at least the electrical and remote-control features. This application note describes in detail how to use the emulation modes of the R&S® series SMA100A, SMB100A, SMF100A signal generators.
|1MA128: Calibration and Verification of SEQUANS Wave 2 WiMAX chipsets1MA128: Calibration and Verification of SEQUANS Wave 2 WiMAX chipsets||11.06.2008|
Rohde & Schwarz offers complete non signalling & signalling based Production Test Solutions for WiMAX Chipsets: From “single box” test solutions, using the R&S® CMW270 WiMAX Communication Tester, to traditional multi-instrument setups, using the R&S® SMJ100A Signal Generator together with the R&S® FSL Spectrum Analyser, Rohde & Schwarz provides a time and cost effective test solution. The implementation of chipset specific Auto Test Software enables automatic Rx/Tx measurements and the realisation of a fast calibration routine.
|1MA129: EDGE Evolution Technology Introduction1MA129: EDGE Evolution Technology Introduction||02.04.2008|
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) provide data capabilities in widely deployed 2G networks reaching peak and average data rates of 384kpbs and 200kbps, respectively. Within 3GPP Release 7, further improvements to GPRS/EDGE have been specified in the context of EDGE evolution. This application note introduces key features of EDGE evolution and outlines the changes to the radio interface.
|7BM72: VSWR Measurement in 75 Ω Systems - using the R&S®FSH3-TV TV Analyzer7BM72: VSWR Measurement in 75 Ω Systems - using the R&S®FSH3-TV TV Analyzer||01.03.2008|
The voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is one of the parameters in RF systems that measures the impedance mismatch. Under ideal conditions, when the load is perfectly matched to the source, the VSWR will be 1. A mismatch in the system causes reflections that will increase the VSWR and lead to losses in transmission. Although most RF components are typically designed and specified with a characteristic impedance of 50 Ω , applications and system components for cable television are designed and specified with a characteristic impedance of 75 Ω . This application note describes the measurement procedure for VSWR measurements in 75 Ω systems using the R&S®FSH3-TV handheld TV analyzer.
|RSI05: Balanced Reflection Measurement with R&S®ZVLRSI05: Balanced Reflection Measurement with R&S®ZVL||14.02.2008|
This application note describes how to measure balanced reflection mixed mode S-Parameters with a 2-port Network Analyzer like R&S® ZVL. The application note directly transfers S-Parameter Trace Data from R&S® Network Analyzers to Microsoft™ Excel™ using a direct connection like GPIB or LAN and does the mode conversion to Mixed Mode inside Excel™ with a VBA Macro.
|RCS0704-0032: Tests of Audio Amplifiers in Accordance with Standard IEC 60268-3RCS0704-0032: Tests of Audio Amplifiers in Accordance with Standard IEC 60268-3||13.02.2008|
This application note describes how to test audio amplifier audio characteristic using the audio analyzer R&S® UPV in accordance with standard IEC 60268-3. The test items include gain, frequency response, harmonic distortion, modulation distortion, difference-tone intermodulation, dynamic intermodulation distortion, noise and cross-talk. The test items are explained and the test steps are described in detail.
|1MA124: Tackling the Challenges of Pulsed Signal Measurements1MA124: Tackling the Challenges of Pulsed Signal Measurements||18.01.2008|
This Application Note describes characterization of devices used in radar systems with pulsed signals. The emphasis is on measurements using vector network analyzers (VNAs), signal generators, vector signal generators and spectrum analyzers.
|1SP801: Creating LabVIEW Drivers for the R&S CompactTSVP by Using GTSL Shared Library Import1SP801: Creating LabVIEW Drivers for the R&S CompactTSVP by Using GTSL Shared Library Import||28.12.2007|
This application note describes the procedure used to create LabVIEW driver libraries by importing *.DLL files from the GTSL (Generic Test Software Library) development framework for the R&S CompactTSVP. This common recipe allows all upcoming versions of the GTSL to be imported as well, for seamless deployment of R&S CompactTSVP modules.
|1SP805: Deployment of LabVIEW Drivers for the R&S®CompactTSVP1SP805: Deployment of LabVIEW Drivers for the R&S®CompactTSVP||28.12.2007|
This application note describes the procedure used to install and deploy the LabVIEW driver libraries for the R&S CompactTSVP. All available wrapper VIs of *.DLL files from the R&S GTSL (Generic Test Software Library) development framework are now conveniently accessible via the LabVIEW menu item 'user.lib'. This common recipe also allows all upcoming versions of the R&S GTSL to be deployed, for safe and seamless updating of future R&S GTSL enhancements.
|1CM63: Migration to Visual Studio .NET 2005 of proprietary Test Cases1CM63: Migration to Visual Studio .NET 2005 of proprietary Test Cases||28.11.2007|
Due to the fact that Microsoft does not maintain the Visual Studio .NET 2003 anymore Rohde & Schwarz has to use the successor compiler product Visual Studio .NET 2005 for building the test case packages. All CRTU-G customers having proprietary test case packages, developed based on Visual Studio .NET 2003, can migrate them to Visual Studio .NET 2005. This is required when the proprietary test case packages are going to be enhanced on a platform with installed Visual Studio .NET 2005.
|7BM61: Creating Test Scenarios in Accordance with IEC 62002 Ed. 2.0 (MBRAI) Using the R&S®SFU7BM61: Creating Test Scenarios in Accordance with IEC 62002 Ed. 2.0 (MBRAI) Using the R&S®SFU||28.11.2007|
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) created the MBRAI specifications, which call for strict conformance tests that ensure the proper functionality of mobile receiver terminals for DVB-T/H transmissions. MBRAI is a common abbreviation of the IEC 62002 standard and stands for “mobile and portable DVB-T/H radio access interface”. This Application Note describes how the Broadcast Test System R&S®SFU provides all functions to generate MBRAI-compliant test signals. Only two special measurements require additional sources. For this purpose, the Test Transmitter R&S®SFE100 is used.
|1CM68: FTP Automation Guide with WCDMA Protocol Tester R&S®CRTU-W1CM68: FTP Automation Guide with WCDMA Protocol Tester R&S®CRTU-W||22.11.2007|
This application note shows how to operate the Automation Manager tool in the R&S® CRTU-W to perform an automated FTP operation during a test scenario.
|1CM33: CDMA2000® 1xRTT / 1xEV-DO Measurement of time relationship between CDMA RF signal and PP2S clock1CM33: CDMA2000® 1xRTT / 1xEV-DO Measurement of time relationship between CDMA RF signal and PP2S clock||09.11.2007|
This application explains the setup and procedure to measure the exact time relationship between the CDMA RF signal and even-second clock. The accurate knowledge of this time relationship is e.g. necessary for test setups which require the synchronization of the R&S® CMU200’s CDMA2000 system with a GPS simulator.
|1MA120: Measuring Electro Magnetic Disturbance During ISO/IEC 14443 Chipcard Data Transmission1MA120: Measuring Electro Magnetic Disturbance During ISO/IEC 14443 Chipcard Data Transmission||19.10.2007|
The Electromagnetic Disturbance (EMD) emitted by Proximity-Integrated-Circuit-Cards (PICC) is a unwanted form of load modulation. This Application Note describes a method for measuring EMD during data transmission using vector signal analysis
|7BM70: LabVIEW™ SNMP Programming for the R&S®DVM, R&S®DVQ and R&S®ETX-T Made Easy With the Viodia™ SNMP Toolkit7BM70: LabVIEW™ SNMP Programming for the R&S®DVM, R&S®DVQ and R&S®ETX-T Made Easy With the Viodia™ SNMP Toolkit||18.10.2007|
In the T&M world, instrument remote control over SNMP (simple network management protocol) lives in the shadow of IEEE/GPIB (general purpose interface bus) based remote control, and only a handful of the T&M equipment available worldwide supports the protocol. It is therefore no surprise that for most T&M engineers familiar with text-based commands over IEEE/GPIB (and lately LAN), the SNMP protocol seems a bit odd and to some even complex at first. The SNMP Toolkit for LabVIEW™ from Viodia™ Inc. can save a considerable amount of development time and furthermore helps programmers to overcome the initial complexities of SNMP programming.
|1EZ56: Multiport Millimeter-Wave Measurements Using Converters of the R&S®ZVA Family1EZ56: Multiport Millimeter-Wave Measurements Using Converters of the R&S®ZVA Family||09.10.2007|
The R&S® ZVA-Z110 converters offered for the R&S® ZVA family enable network analysis in the W band (75 GHz to 110 GHz). In this Application Note, measurements with three or four converters will be discussed. Test configurations for such measurements have so far been implemented only with coaxial connector systems for a frequency range up to approx. 40 GHz. The term 'multiport measurements' was created for this type of measurements.
|7BM69: R&S®DIRECTV® tool for converting 130-byte-based DIRECTV® streams to ISO 13818-1 (188 bytes) MPEG format for R&S®SFU TRP player7BM69: R&S®DIRECTV® tool for converting 130-byte-based DIRECTV® streams to ISO 13818-1 (188 bytes) MPEG format for R&S®SFU TRP player||05.10.2007|
DIRECTV®, a digital TV broadcast system, makes use of transport packets with a length of 130 bytes rather than the more common 188 bytes used in MPEG TS streams. The inputs on the R&S® SFU do not accept transport streams in the DIRECTV® format. This Application Note introduces R&S® DIRECTV tool and explains how it can be used to convert existing 130-byte-based DIRECTV® transport stream content to 188-byte-based ISO 13818-1 streams that are compatible with the R&S® SFU SPI input or the internal R&S® SFU TRP player. This tool is intended for Rohde & Schwarz customers who are licensed to operate an R&S® SFU-K9 DIRECTV coder or R&S® SFU-K108 AMC coder.
|1CM65: CDMA2000® 1xRTT/1xEV-DO Hybrid Mode Testing1CM65: CDMA2000® 1xRTT/1xEV-DO Hybrid Mode Testing||01.10.2007|
This application note is intended as a guide to configuring the R&S® CMU200 instrument for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO / 1xRTT Hybrid Mode testing.
|1EF46: Using MATLAB for Remote Control and Data Capture with R&S Spectrum and Network Analyzers1EF46: Using MATLAB for Remote Control and Data Capture with R&S Spectrum and Network Analyzers||24.09.2007|
Spectrum and network analyzers are capable of measuring large amounts of data that require complex mathematical processing; MATLAB is a powerful tool for such operations. This application note describes how instruments can be controlled directly from MATLAB scripts and how measurement data can be imported into MATLAB. Only 32-bit MATLAB is supported.
|7BM67: Quality Measurements on Digital and Analog TV Transmitters - Using the R&S ETL7BM67: Quality Measurements on Digital and Analog TV Transmitters - Using the R&S ETL||19.09.2007|
All types of information transmission, including the 'one-way' transmission used in broadcasting, involve feeding a radio frequency (RF) signal to an antenna. This is the essence of the most basic type of transmitter used to emit electromagnetic waves. In the real world, however, a transmitter used for broadcast applications, for example, is much more complex in terms of its functions and design. The different transmitter components must be carefully coordinated. There are many quality parameters that are critical in ensuring that a proper output signal is delivered. Rohde & Schwarz designed the R&S® ETL TV analyzer especially for broadcasting applications. The analyzer allows the measurement of the quality parameters that are relevant in analog and digital broadcasting. This Application Note describes the typical quality measurements performed during compliance testing of TV transmitters. The approach discussed here is based on the example of Rohde & Schwarz terrestrial transmitters for analog TV and DVB-T/H.
|7BM63: Phase Noise Profile Creator V. 1.2 for the R&S®SFU7BM63: Phase Noise Profile Creator V. 1.2 for the R&S®SFU||22.08.2007|
This Application Note briefly explains the theoretical background regarding phase noise before describing the phase noise option for the R&S SFU. You will see how the phase noise profile creator application software can be used to generate specific phase noise curves and how to output them with the aid of the R&S SFU.
|RAC-0611-0025: WiMAX Power Amplifier TestingRAC-0611-0025: WiMAX Power Amplifier Testing||03.08.2007|
This appication note introduces a program suitable for generating and analyzing WiMAX IEEE 802.16 signals for power amplifier testing. The program allows the user to change the generator settings, to select specific pre-defined test parameters and to analyze the test results. The application note describes the test parameters and the features and capabilities of the program.
|1MA103: Tests of Power Amplifiers for Single-Channel and Multi-Channel TD-SCDMA Base Stations1MA103: Tests of Power Amplifiers for Single-Channel and Multi-Channel TD-SCDMA Base Stations||31.07.2007|
This Application Note describes how to perform measurements on power amplifiers for TD-SCDMA base stations to specification TS 25.142 using Rohde & Schwarz generators, power meters and signal/spectrum analyzers. The TD-SCDMA application firmware for Rohde & Schwarz generators and analyzers as well as their outstanding performance facilitate efficient and rapid measurements.
|1EF52: Testing Mobile Radio Antenna Systems with the R&S®FSH1EF52: Testing Mobile Radio Antenna Systems with the R&S®FSH||21.07.2007|
This application note describes the procedures used to measure antenna systems for mobile radio base stations using the Handheld Spectrum Analyzer R&S FSH.
|1EF60: Power Measurement and Power Calculation of IEEE 802.16 WiMAX OFDMA signals1EF60: Power Measurement and Power Calculation of IEEE 802.16 WiMAX OFDMA signals||11.07.2007|
The R&S WiMAX application firmware R&S FSx-K93 calculates several different power parameters. This application note describes the basic power measurements of WiMAX OFDMA signals and gives an overview of the calculation of the different values.
|RAC-0703-0029: Remote Operation of R&S Instruments Using Remote Desktop Connection via LANRAC-0703-0029: Remote Operation of R&S Instruments Using Remote Desktop Connection via LAN||05.07.2007|
Rohde & Schwarz instruments can be shared when users wish to use the same instrument. This can be done quite easily with the LAN interface, which comes as a standard option. Through this interface, Rohde & Schwarz instruments can be connected directly to a network, and users with access to the network can manually operate the instrument from a remote computer. This Application Note lists all instruments that support these features and describes the steps necessary to set up and configure the network connection to operate these instruments remotely.
|1GA46: Measurement of Play-only devices like MP3 Players with R&S Audio Analyzer UPV1GA46: Measurement of Play-only devices like MP3 Players with R&S Audio Analyzer UPV||28.06.2007|
Play-only devices like CD- or MP3 players cannot be measured as traditional 4-pole devices. Therefore traditional transfer function measurements using the generator part of the audio analyzer are not possible. Those devices are tested with a pre-recorded test signal available as wav or MP3 file. This application note describes a fast test together with a setup and an executable which runs the test and displays the desired results. The test signal is provided as a linear coded wav file. This file can easily be coded into MP3 format using any commercially available or public domain wave editors or ripper programs. The test can also be executed by IEEE control and all results can be read out by IEEE commands.
|RAC-0705-0038: Phase-Synchronized Signal Generation with two R&S®AM300RAC-0705-0038: Phase-Synchronized Signal Generation with two R&S®AM300||27.06.2007|
This application note describes how to use two or more Arbitrary-/Function Generators R&S® AM300 to generate multi-phase-sychronized signals, which are required in some applications.
|1MA73: Rohde&Schwarz Smart Instruments Family300 Basic Programming Guide1MA73: Rohde&Schwarz Smart Instruments Family300 Basic Programming Guide||25.06.2007|
Introduction to the fundamentals of programming the R&S Smart Instruments Family 300 in different developement environments.
|RSI03: Generation and Analysis of ZigBee™ IEEE802.15.4 signals in the 2.4 GHz bandRSI03: Generation and Analysis of ZigBee™ IEEE802.15.4 signals in the 2.4 GHz band||21.06.2007|
IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee™) uses OQPSK with a half-sine pulse shaping filter as modulation. This application note describes how to generate and analyze ZigBee™ signals. Simple test signals can be setup with the free-of-charge simulation software R&S WinIQSIM™ and transferred to the vector signal generator R&S SMU200A. It describes how to setup the vector signal analyzer R&S FSQ with option R&S FSQ-K70 for ZigBee™ signal demodulation and how to analyze modulation quality such as error vector magnitude (EVM).
|7BM66: SNMP Example: DVM Management Center Monitoring in a Broadcast Network7BM66: SNMP Example: DVM Management Center Monitoring in a Broadcast Network||31.05.2007|
The simple network management protocol (SNMP) can be used in a wide range of applications, as described in Rohde & Schwarz Application Note 7BM65 “The Simple Network Management Protocol: Remote Controlling for Monitoring Devices“. In particular, the option of centrally managing monitoring sensors – such as the R&S DVM for RF and baseband signals in digital broadcasting – shows the potential of this technology. However, the protocol alone is not enough to achieve this management functionality. Specialized management applications are needed that carry out the SNMP requests and display the results graphically. This application note and the associated SNMP example application will show how the R&S DVM family can be used for this type of application. Rohde & Schwarz customers can use the included source code (programming language: C#) to make the modifications needed for their own situations.
|1EF58: WiMAX: IEEE 802.16e-2005 Introduction to OFDMA Measurements1EF58: WiMAX: IEEE 802.16e-2005 Introduction to OFDMA Measurements||23.05.2007|
Rohde & Schwarz offers a complete test solution for WiMAX applications by combining its Signal Generator R&S SMU200A and Signal Analyzer R&S FSQ plus the appropriate options. This application note provides an overview of the differences between OFDM and OFDMA and demonstrates, how convenient it is to generate and analyze WiMAX OFDMA signals according to standard IEEE 802.16e-2005.
|1MA104: TD-SCDMA Test Signals in Accordance with Standards TS 34.122 and TS 25.1421MA104: TD-SCDMA Test Signals in Accordance with Standards TS 34.122 and TS 25.142||10.05.2007|
Application Note 1MA104 shows you how to quickly and easily create TD-SCDMA test signals for user equipment and base station tests as stipulated in the standards TS 34.122 and TS 25.142.
|1CM64: CDMA2000® 1xEV-DO Packet Data Testing with R&S®CMU2001CM64: CDMA2000® 1xEV-DO Packet Data Testing with R&S®CMU200||04.05.2007|
The Rohde & Schwarz R&S® CMU200 can be configured to perform packet data testing in a Mobile IP or Simple IP environment. This application note is intended as a guide to configuring the necessary Mobile IP or Simple IP network elements and R&S® CMU200 instrument for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO.
|1CM51: CDMA2000®: Packet Data Testing with R&S®CMU2001CM51: CDMA2000®: Packet Data Testing with R&S®CMU200||25.04.2007|
The Rohde & Schwarz R&S CMU200 can be configured to perform packet data testing in a Mobile IP or Simple IP environment.
|1SP54: TS-EMF System Check with Tri Axis Sensor1SP54: TS-EMF System Check with Tri Axis Sensor||23.04.2007|
The Tri-Axis Sensor (Isotropic Antenna) is a major component of the Rohde & Schwarz TS-EMF System. The Application Note 1SP54 gives some background on the functionality of this sensor and describes possibilities to perform a system check with the FSH, using an known environmental signal or a signal from a generator.
|1GP63: Speeding up production test with the R&S®SMATE200A1GP63: Speeding up production test with the R&S®SMATE200A||17.04.2007|
Due to today’s worldwide highly competitive communications market, achieving shorter product design cycles, quicker response to customer requests and high-volume product runs at low costs is vital for manufacturers of wireless devices and components. These requirements inevitably lead to demands for improving the throughput of Automated Test Equipment (ATE) by increasing its speed. This application note describes in detail how the special features of the R&S® SMATE200A can be used to optimize speed and throughput in an automated test environment.
|1EF56: Frequency Extension for Phase Noise Measurements with FSUP26/50 and Option B60 (Cross-Correlation)1EF56: Frequency Extension for Phase Noise Measurements with FSUP26/50 and Option B60 (Cross-Correlation)||10.04.2007|
This application note describes the use of the R&S FSUP26/50 with frequency dividers to extend cross correlation range to higher frequencies.
|1EF59: DFS Analysis Tool, Dynamic Frequency Selection in the 5 GHz Band1EF59: DFS Analysis Tool, Dynamic Frequency Selection in the 5 GHz Band||30.03.2007|
This application note describes DFS measurements with a spectrum analyzer. An external program, the DFS Analysis Tool, is used to improve measurement speed.
|1SP33: R&S IMS / Software Configuration and System Calibration according IEC / EN 61000-4-6 (conducted immunity)1SP33: R&S IMS / Software Configuration and System Calibration according IEC / EN 61000-4-6 (conducted immunity)||29.03.2007|
This application note describes the software configuration, system calibration and test routine for EMC measurements according to the EMS standard IEC / EN 61000-4-6.
|1SP31: R&S®IMS Hardware Setup according IEC / EN 61000-4-6 (conducted immunity)1SP31: R&S®IMS Hardware Setup according IEC / EN 61000-4-6 (conducted immunity)||29.03.2007|
This application note describes the general setup and required equipment for EMC measurements according to the EMS standard IEC / EN 61000-4-6.
|1SP32: R&S IMS Hardware Setup according IEC / EN 61000-4-3 (radiated immunity)1SP32: R&S IMS Hardware Setup according IEC / EN 61000-4-3 (radiated immunity)||29.03.2007|
This application note describes the general setup and required equipment for EMC measurements according to the EMS standard IEC / EN 61000-4-3.
|RSI02: Transfer of Trace Data from R&S Network Analyzer ZVx to Microsoft ExcelRSI02: Transfer of Trace Data from R&S Network Analyzer ZVx to Microsoft Excel||22.03.2007|
This application note describes how to directly transfer S-Parameter Trace Data from R&S Network Analyzers to Microsoft Excel using a direct connection like GPIB or LAN. Prerequisites are a PC running Microsoft Excel, a R&S Network analyzer like ZVA, ZVB or ZVT as well as a working remote control connection between PC and instrument like GPIB or LAN / Ethernet.
|7BM65: Simple Network Management Protocol - Remote Controlling for Monitoring Devices7BM65: Simple Network Management Protocol - Remote Controlling for Monitoring Devices||16.03.2007|
An operator of a network of terrestrial transmitter stations wants to have the most cost-effective means of monitoring the network's numerous transmitter sites from a main monitoring center. Modern error sensors such as the R&S DVM50/100 and the R&S ETX-T are used for diverse monitoring functions at the individual transmitter sites as well as to transmit monitoring status to the main monitoring center. These error sensors have a function-rich SNMP agent designed specifically for this purpose. Simple network management protocol (SNMP). Despite the 'simple' in the protocol name, some users are still afraid to use it for remote control and monitoring. This Application Note therefore provides a user-friendly and practical look at, for example, how the monitoring functions via SNMP can be used for the R&S DVM. The following sections provide a brief look at the SNMP protocol, the R&S DVM/ETX implementation, and useful tools for working with SNMP. A description of how SNMP can be linked to various development environments (C++, C#, Java) is also provided.
|1EZ54: Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB1EZ54: Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB||07.02.2007|
This document describes typical measurements that are required to be made on amplifiers and how the measurement can be implemented on the ZVB Vector Network Analyzer. The document describes the concepts and setups required to perform Gain, Isolation, input impedance measurements, then goes on to describe how more uncommon measurements are made with the ZVB like Harmonics, Stability Factor and compression point.
|7BM64: Tolerance to Noise Tests for DTV Receivers7BM64: Tolerance to Noise Tests for DTV Receivers||26.01.2007|
Testing the tolerance to phase and impulsive noise is an integral part of quality tests for DVB-T/H and ATSC (8VSB) receivers, and several national and international standards specify guidelines and minimum requirements in this context. This Application Note introduces the R&S SFU-K42 impulsive noise option, the R&S SFU-K41 phase noise option, as well as the R&S SFU-K43 multinoise use option and describes how these can be used for testing the tolerance to phase and impulsive noise on commercial receivers.
|TS-EMF2: TRD ConversionTS-EMF2: TRD Conversion||25.01.2007|
|7BM50: Generating Interference Signals using the R&S®SFU-K37 Option7BM50: Generating Interference Signals using the R&S®SFU-K37 Option||09.01.2007|
This Application Note introduces the new interferer management option, R&S SFU-K37 and describes how this can be used to generate various types of interfering signals for testing the performance of a receiver.
|7BM57: R&S®SFU & R&S®WinIQSIM™ Function and Uses of the Arbitrary Waveform Generator (ARB)7BM57: R&S®SFU & R&S®WinIQSIM™ Function and Uses of the Arbitrary Waveform Generator (ARB)||19.12.2006|
Arbitrary waveform generator – this term encapsulates the wide-ranging capabilities and applications that can be provided by user-definable I/Q baseband signals and a vector signalgenerator. Rohde & Schwarz has developed the R&S WinIQSIM™ software package specifically with this in mind. The first questions a user might ask are: “How do the R&S SFU and R&S WinIQSIM™ interwork and what features are available? This Application Note has been produced to answer these questions.
|7BM51: Measuring Bit Error Rate using the R&S®SFU-K60 Option7BM51: Measuring Bit Error Rate using the R&S®SFU-K60 Option||19.12.2006|
The measurement of bit error rate (BER) is an important test procedure for determining the performance of a receiving terminal. This is especially important for set top box and chipset manufacturers who need to know if their product is able to meet the specification under a predefined noise condition. This Application Note describes the technique using an Rohde & Schwarz SFU to measure the BER of digital set top boxes.
|RAC-0502-0012: FM Stereo Tuner MeasurementRAC-0502-0012: FM Stereo Tuner Measurement||15.12.2006|
This Application Note presents a program which combines FM tuner measurements to form automatically running sequences in line with DIN EN60315-4. It is an extension of Application Note 1GA43 and can be used with the Generator R&S SML and the Audio Analyzer R&S UPV or UPL.
|1MA110: Experimental Study of 3G Signal Interaction in Nonlinear Downlink RAN Transmitters1MA110: Experimental Study of 3G Signal Interaction in Nonlinear Downlink RAN Transmitters||03.11.2006|
While RF communication signal distortions in nonlinear transmission paths have been predicted theoretically and studied experimentally for various signals, it is interesting to examine a wideband nonlinear system reaction to a wideband 3G signal and a narrowband 2G signal. Research and testing have demonstrated that, while most vital signal parameters remain within the limits specified by applicable standards even if composite signal power approaches specified maximum power, a relatively high level of spurious emissions caused by cross- and intermodulation can result. To avoid degrading both existing and new systems, this and other signal quality issues must be considered when designing and deploying multitechnology systems.
|1MA107: Transmitter Tests in Accordance with the CTIA Plan for Wi-Fi Mobile Converged Devices1MA107: Transmitter Tests in Accordance with the CTIA Plan for Wi-Fi Mobile Converged Devices||11.10.2006|
In response to the growing number of WLAN modules that also support a cellular network (converged devices), CTIA published a plan with new tests in August 2006 that certifies Wi-Fi conformance. This Application Note first addresses the transmitter tests of the CTIA plan. For these tests Rohde&Schwarz offers preprogrammed instrument setups. They enable you to perform the measurements on the WLAN test set easily and quickly. Moreover, this Application Note shows how you can check the spectrum transmit mask defined for OFDM by means of only one keystroke on the Rohde&Schwarz spectrum analyzers.
|1CM50: Measurements on Bluetooth Devices using R&S®CMU200 and R&S®CMUgo1CM50: Measurements on Bluetooth Devices using R&S®CMU200 and R&S®CMUgo||06.10.2006|
This application note describes how Bluetooth devices are tested and measured using the R&S CMU200/CBT by means of the CMUgo/CBTgo remote control program or manual operation.
|7BM60: Distance-To-Fault (DTF) Measurement in 75 Ohm Systems with the R&S®FSH3-TV7BM60: Distance-To-Fault (DTF) Measurement in 75 Ohm Systems with the R&S®FSH3-TV||21.09.2006|
Measuring cable characteristics is important when it comes to installing and servicing cable TV systems. Cable pinches or poor connections considerably influence the characteristics of cable TV systems. This document shows how the measurement is carried out in a 75 Ohm system. The basics of distance-to-fault measurements, the test setup, calibration and measurement are discussed.
|7BM62: Creating MediaFLO™ Test Scenarios in Accordance with the Minimum Performance Specification (MPS) V 1.27BM62: Creating MediaFLO™ Test Scenarios in Accordance with the Minimum Performance Specification (MPS) V 1.2||31.08.2006|
The FLO in MediaFLO stands for 'forward link only'. MediaFLO technology covers transmission of files and multimedia content to handheld devices. The FLO device minimum performance specification (MPS) was created to ensure that FLO receivers can receive a FLO service that fulfils the compatibility guidelines of the FLO air interface specification. This Application Note shows how the Broadcast Test System R&S SFU from Rohde & Schwarz can be used to generate all test scenarios required by the minimum performance specification.
|RAC-0605-016: CSO, CTB & XMOD characterisation of CATV line extenders with the aid of vector signal generatorsRAC-0605-016: CSO, CTB & XMOD characterisation of CATV line extenders with the aid of vector signal generators||11.08.2006|
The fact that cable TV networks are generally located in densely populated areas or extend over large geographical regions makes the presence of line extenders at regular intervals a necessity. Cascading large numbers of amplifiers however calls for excellent noise, SWR and intermodulation distortion specifications for the integrated amplifiers in order to avoid quality of service dropping below minimum acceptable levels. Composite second order, composite triple beat & cross modulation are commonly used figures to specify the performance of CATV equipment. In this application note we describe how to determine these figures with the aid of R&S SMU200A or AFQ100A and SMV vector signal generators.
|1MA101: Fast Scalar Network Analysis Using a Signal Generator and a Power Meter1MA101: Fast Scalar Network Analysis Using a Signal Generator and a Power Meter||14.07.2006|
This document presents a simple procedure for network analysis that is more cost-effective than the use of scalar network analyzers. It allows the accurate measurement of the transmission characteristics of filters, amplifiers and frequency converters over a large frequency and dynamic range. In order to reach very high measurement speeds, Rohde & Schwarz signal generators are operated in 'List Mode', and Rohde & Schwarz power meters are operated in 'Buffered Mode.' The required programming for the signal generator and the power meter is illustrated by excerpts from a Visual Basic program which is available, free of charge, upon request.
|1EF57: WiMAX: 802.16-2004, 802.16e, WiBRO Introduction to WiMAX Measurements1EF57: WiMAX: 802.16-2004, 802.16e, WiBRO Introduction to WiMAX Measurements||11.07.2006|
The new WiMAX radio technology - worldwide interoperability for microwave access - is based on wireless transmission methods defined by the IEEE 802.16 standard. WiMAX has been developed to replace broadband cable networks such as DSL and to enable mobile broadband wireless access. Rohde & Schwarz offers a complete test solution for WiMAX applications by combining its Signal Generator R&S SMU200A and Signal Analyzer R&S FSQ plus the appropriate options.
|1MA97: WiMAX - Generating and analyzing 802.16-2004 and 802.16e-2005 signals1MA97: WiMAX - Generating and analyzing 802.16-2004 and 802.16e-2005 signals||10.07.2006|
This Application Note gives an introduction to measurements of WiMAX signals according to standards 80216-2004 and 802.16e-2005. It describes all kind of signal generation from simple signals to multiple-zone signals, also under multipath environment (fading), and covers all signal measurements from power and spectrum analysis, crest factor and CCDF measurement down to bit pattern analysis and modulation measurements.
|7BM59: DVB-H Measurements with the R&S®DVM Basics and Application7BM59: DVB-H Measurements with the R&S®DVM Basics and Application||04.07.2006|
The DVB-H standard is a specification for bringing television broadcast services to handheld receivers. In order to save battery power, data for a specific service is transmitted in short bursts. This type of transmission utilizes special techniques within the transport stream. The R&S DVM offers a wide range of functions to analyze the characteristics of the DVB-H transport stream. This document describes the characteristics of the DVB-H transport stream and shows how the R&S DVM can be used for efficient analysis in research and development, production, and broadcasting.
|7BM56: R&S®SFQ to R&S®SFU SCPI Transcription + Cross-Reference List7BM56: R&S®SFQ to R&S®SFU SCPI Transcription + Cross-Reference List||23.06.2006|
For customers who have already used automated R&S SFQ setups in development and production, the implementation of the successor instrument results in a need to adjust the SCPI commands formerly used.This document provides an overview on how SCPI commands that are used with the R&S SFQ change with the new test transmitter as well as a cross-reference list in the form of an EXCEL sheet.
|7BM54: Seamless Level Setting on the R&S®SFU7BM54: Seamless Level Setting on the R&S®SFU||23.06.2006|
The Rohde & Schwarz SFU supports several modes of level setting. This Application Note describes the differences between these modes and especially describes a method to achieve a seamless transition without any impact to the output signal during a change of settings on an Rohde & Schwarz SFU (Firmware version > 1.30).
|1MA96: WiMAX - General information about the standard 802.161MA96: WiMAX - General information about the standard 802.16||13.06.2006|
This application note is one of three papers dealing with the WiMAX standard, covering the theoretical aspects of WiMAX. It gives a detailed overview of the basic concepts of WiMAX (FFT, OFDM, frame structures, etc) and explains the physical standard parts of IEEE 802.16 standards 802.16-2004, corr1 and 802.16e.
|1SP51: Remote Control of R&S ROMES using a Pocket PC1SP51: Remote Control of R&S ROMES using a Pocket PC||09.06.2006|
This Application Note describes how to configure a PDA (Pocket PC) and a notebook to remotely control the notebook running Rohde & Schwarz ROMES SW using wireless network techniques.
|7BM55: Comprehensive PCR Analysis - Using the R&S®DVM Family from Rohde & Schwarz R&S®DVM50/DVM100/DVM120/DVM4007BM55: Comprehensive PCR Analysis - Using the R&S®DVM Family from Rohde & Schwarz R&S®DVM50/DVM100/DVM120/DVM400||01.06.2006|
When MPEG-2 transport streams are transmitted, the program clock reference PCR is transmitted as a time reference in the receiver. A sufficiently accurate and correctly received PCR is a precondition for correct data display in the receiver. This Application Note provides an overview of definitions, functions and use of the PCR. It also explains the recommended measurements of the current measurement guidelines and offers detailed instructions on how to use the PCR measurement functions of the R&S DVM family.
|RSI01: Generation and Analysis of RFID Signals According to ISO 15693RSI01: Generation and Analysis of RFID Signals According to ISO 15693||17.05.2006|
This application note describes how to generate test signals for 13.56 MHz RFID modules according to ISO 15693 with R&S Signal Generators and analyze them with R&S Signal Analyzers using software R&S WinIQSIM™.
|7BM58: Extracting Video Elementary Streams Using the R&S®DVM 50/100/4007BM58: Extracting Video Elementary Streams Using the R&S®DVM 50/100/400||21.04.2006|
This Application Note describes two easy ways of extracting the video content of MPEG-2 transport streams and storing it as video elementary streams. These elementary streams can later be used to generate customized MPEG-2 transport streams by means of the Advanced Stream Combiner R&S DVASC application.
|1MA92: RF Level Measurement Uncertainties with the Measuring Receiver R&S®FSMR1MA92: RF Level Measurement Uncertainties with the Measuring Receiver R&S®FSMR||28.03.2006|
Measurement uncertainties that occur when the R&S FSMR measuring receiver is used to calibrate RF levels are described and quantified in this application note. Several Excel spreadsheets are included.They can be used to simplify calculation of the uncertainty for various configurations.
|7BM53: Buffer Analysis MPEG-2 TS Analysis & Monitoring7BM53: Buffer Analysis MPEG-2 TS Analysis & Monitoring||23.03.2006|
The new buffer analysis feature was introduced with firmware version 2.80 for the R&S DVM family. This application note describes this feature and explains how it represents a valuable asset to your daily business operations This application note first provides background information and then explains how monitoring and measurement have been implemented in the R&S DVM family.
|7BM52: R&S®DVM software video decoder7BM52: R&S®DVM software video decoder||02.03.2006|
This Application Note provides a step-by-step description of all video decoding settings you need to make. It also contains valuable information about how to optimize replay for various applications.
|1MA94: High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) White Paper1MA94: High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) White Paper||09.02.2006|
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a 3GPP release 6 feature for WCDMA. Objective is to achieve uplink data rates of up to 5.76 Mbps and increase throughput and capacity. This application note introduces HSUPA concepts and explains key features.
|1CM60: Optimization of HSDPA networks with the Radio Communication Tester R&S®CMU300 and Coverage Measurement System R&S®ROMES1CM60: Optimization of HSDPA networks with the Radio Communication Tester R&S®CMU300 and Coverage Measurement System R&S®ROMES||08.02.2006|
The Radio Communication Tester R&S CMU300 and Coverage Measurement System R&S ROMES provide a wide range of possibilities to check the HSDPA air interface and network quality. The measurement results that can be obtained with the aforementioned solutions ensure flawless operation of HSDPA services from the start and longstanding customer acceptance of the new technology.
|1GP59: R&S FM-ARB - PC Software for generating FM/AM signals in the ARB1GP59: R&S FM-ARB - PC Software for generating FM/AM signals in the ARB||07.02.2006|
THIS PRODUCT IS DISCONTINUED. PLEASE USE THE ARB TOOLBOX PLUS (1GP62) AS REPLACEMENT. The software R&S FM-ARB creates waveforms with Frequency Modulation, Phase Modulation or Amplitude Modulation. Those waveforms can be directly transferred to the selected Arbitrary Waveform Generator or saved to a file for later use.
|1CM62: How to do Measurements according to TS 34.121 in presence of the HS-DPCCH with the R&S®CMU2001CM62: How to do Measurements according to TS 34.121 in presence of the HS-DPCCH with the R&S®CMU200||25.11.2005|
With the extension of the 3GPP FDD system to include HSDPA, the HS-DPCCH has been added as a new code channel in the uplink. This Application Note describes the transmitter measurements provided by the CMU200 to perform the transmitter measurements defined in TS 34.121 in presence of the HS-DPCCH. CMU200 receiver measurements according to TS 34.121 that measure the throughput and the CQI reporting are described. Subject to change – T. Braun, November 2005 - 1CM62
|FTK04: Automatic DAB Receiver Test - Test of Re-Synchronisation CapabilityFTK04: Automatic DAB Receiver Test - Test of Re-Synchronisation Capability||11.11.2005|
This application note describes the testing of the re-synchronisation capability of DAB receivers according to the European Standard EN 50248 ‘Characteristics of DAB receivers’, using the test system 'Automatic DAB Receiver Test'.
|TS-EMF3: TRD Konvertierung (German)TS-EMF3: TRD Konvertierung (German)||11.11.2005|
|FTK03: Automatic DAB Receiver Test - Test of SensitivityFTK03: Automatic DAB Receiver Test - Test of Sensitivity||11.11.2005|
This application note describes the testing of the sensitivity of DAB receivers according to the European Standard EN 50248 ‘Characteristics of DAB receivers’, using the test set 'Automatic DAB Receiver Test'.
|1CM58: Synchronous Node B Testing with R&S®CMU3001CM58: Synchronous Node B Testing with R&S®CMU300||10.11.2005|
The R&S CMU300 combines high-precision Node B parameter tests with layer 1 signalling processes for the first time. Thus, you can now test Node Bs under more realistic conditions as it was possible with existing concepts. This document describes the new measurement functions and provides an overview of their applications.
|1MA27: AmpTune - Software for Measuring Amplifier Nonlinearity in Realistic Conditions1MA27: AmpTune - Software for Measuring Amplifier Nonlinearity in Realistic Conditions||26.10.2005|
With AMPTUNE amplifier nonlinearity can be measured with signals that are typical for the signals encountered by the amplifier in day-to-day use. The measurement can be checked by pre-distorting the control signal. Also, the results can be automatically stored for further processing with external programs.
|1CM55: Power Measurements on WLAN Modules with the R&S®CMU 200 and with CMUgo1CM55: Power Measurements on WLAN Modules with the R&S®CMU 200 and with CMUgo||18.10.2005|
This application note describes how to test and perform a WLAN power measurement using the R&S CMU200 by means of remote-control or manual operation.
|1CM59: AMR Testing on GSM Base Stations with R&S®CMU3001CM59: AMR Testing on GSM Base Stations with R&S®CMU300||26.07.2005|
GSM Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) tests can be performed by using the R&S CMU300 as of software version V3.65. This document describes the scope of functions of the AMR Testing R&S CMU-K37 software expansion option.
|1CM57: GSM Measurements with the R&S®CMU200 and CMUgo1CM57: GSM Measurements with the R&S®CMU200 and CMUgo||24.05.2005|
This Application Note describes how to test and perform measurements on mobile phones in compliance with the GSM standard using the R&S CMU200 by means of the remote-control program CMUgo or manual operation.
|1MA91: Test of DVB-H Capable Mobile Phones in Development and Production1MA91: Test of DVB-H Capable Mobile Phones in Development and Production||07.04.2005|
This Rohde & Schwarz application note provides an introduction into the DVB-H standard at first. It then discusses the test of DVB-H-capable mobile phones in development and production.
|1MA76: 3GPP Receiver Test Under Fading Conditions With CMU and SMIQ.1MA76: 3GPP Receiver Test Under Fading Conditions With CMU and SMIQ.||01.03.2005|
This application note describes how to generate 3GPP (UTRA-FDD) signals for receiver tests under fading conditions for user equipment. The test setup requires an R&S®CMU200 Universal Radio Communication Tester with option R&S®CMU-B17 IQ-IF interface and an R&S®SMIQ Vector Signal Generator. The test setup can be calibrated with either a R&S®NRP-Zx USB power sensor or an NRP, NRVD, or NRVS Power Meter. To calibrate the baseband and RF path and configure performance tests according to the 3GPP test specification 34.121 easily, the program 3GFadLevCor is included.
|1MA48: Generating and Analyzing 3 GPP Multicarrier Signals with High Dynamic Range1MA48: Generating and Analyzing 3 GPP Multicarrier Signals with High Dynamic Range||17.02.2005|
This application note describes three ways of generating multicarrier signals with high dynamic range for testing power amplifiers of 3GPP radio base stations. The corresponding sets of waveform (*.wv) files are delivered with this application note. The WinIQSIM™ software is used to download these files to the signal generator(s).Tips for optimizing spectrum analyzer settings in order to measure the Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) are given.
|1MA82: High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) Test and Measurement Requirements1MA82: High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) Test and Measurement Requirements||01.02.2005|
This Application Note introduces HSDPA technology and test and measurement requirements according to 3GPP release 5 specifications. Important HSDPA measurements and example applications are illustrated by means of Rohde & Schwarz products.
|1MA64: CDMA2000® Receiver Tests Under Fading Conditions with R&S®CMU and ABFS1MA64: CDMA2000® Receiver Tests Under Fading Conditions with R&S®CMU and ABFS||21.01.2005|
This application note describes how to generate cdma2000 signals for wide ranging receiver tests under fading conditions for cdma2000® 450/Cellular/PCS/IMT-2000 mobile and base station equipment. The test setup requires an R&S Universal Radio Communication Tester CMU with IQ-IF interface option CMU-B17 and a baseband fading simulator ABFS. The cdma2kFadLevCor program included with this application note performs a semi automatic level correction of the power fed to the Device Under Test (DUT).
|1CM54: WCDMA / CDMA2000 Intermodulation Calibration for Zero IF Chipsets1CM54: WCDMA / CDMA2000 Intermodulation Calibration for Zero IF Chipsets||16.12.2004|
The Rohde & Schwarz CMU200 provides the signals required for 2nd order intermodulation (IM2) performance verification for WCDMA / CDMA2000® chipsets with zero IF design.
|1GP58: Polar Modulation with R&S®SMU200A1GP58: Polar Modulation with R&S®SMU200A||26.11.2004|
Polar modulation is a method where digital modulation is realized as a combination of phase and amplitude modulation, rather than using an I/Q modulator. This technique becomes increasingly important in mobile communication. This application note shows how to generate polar modulation with an R&S® SMU200A Vector Signal Generator.
|7BM46: Firewall configuration for R&S®DVM7BM46: Firewall configuration for R&S®DVM||23.11.2004|
Detailed instructions on 'How to activate the Win XP firewall'. The firewall is already activated on new units!
|1CM56: Testing the Ericsson® Node B Typ RBS 3202® with R&S®CMU300 BTS Radio Communication Tester and NetHawk® RNC/Iub Simulator®1CM56: Testing the Ericsson® Node B Typ RBS 3202® with R&S®CMU300 BTS Radio Communication Tester and NetHawk® RNC/Iub Simulator®||15.10.2004|
Testing the RF parameters of a WCDMA base station during the network rollout phase ensures subsequent trouble-free operation of networks as a basic prerequisite for general UMTS customer acceptance. This document describes a complete solution for testing the main transmission and reception parameters according to Specification 3GPP TS 25.141 FDD R99 on the basis of the R&S CMU300 Radio Communication Tester (RF measurements) and the NetHawk RNC/Iub Simulator (base station controller). The solution presented here is particularly recommended for installation measurements and regression tests on new UMTS system components.
|1EF53: Spectrum Analyzer R&S®FSP/FSQ/FSU Instrument Security1EF53: Spectrum Analyzer R&S®FSP/FSQ/FSU Instrument Security||20.09.2004|
This application note describes the different memory types and locations that user information can be stored in a spectrum analyzer R&S® FSP, R&S® FSU or R&S® FSQ, as well as the different ways in which it can be erased/cleared for security reasons.
|1EF54: Spectrum Analyzer R&S®FSE/FSIQ Instrument Security1EF54: Spectrum Analyzer R&S®FSE/FSIQ Instrument Security||20.09.2004|
This application note describes the different memory types and locations that user information can be stored in a spectrum analyzer R&S® FSEA, R&S® FSEB, R&S® FSEM, R&S® FSEK or R&S® FSIQ, as well as the different ways in which it can be erased/cleared for security reasons.
|1EZ53: Measuring Balanced Components with Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVB1EZ53: Measuring Balanced Components with Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVB||20.09.2004|
Balanced RF components are advantageous compared to traditional single-ended components, since they cause less EMI, and are less susceptible to EMI. This application note describes the fundamental concepts of differential and common mode signals and of mixed-mode parameters, which are essential for balanced components. Techniques for the measurement of mixed-mode parameters are presented. Examples show the features implemented in the ZVB for balanced device measurement.
|1CM52: (E)GPRS Measurements with R&S CMU200 and CMUgo1CM52: (E)GPRS Measurements with R&S CMU200 and CMUgo||07.09.2004|
This application note describes how to test and perform (E)GPRS-related measurements on mobile phones in compliance with the GSM standard using the R&S CMU200 by means of remote-control or manual operation.
|1CM53: Measurements on AMPS phones with the R&S®CMU200 and R&S®CMUgo1CM53: Measurements on AMPS phones with the R&S®CMU200 and R&S®CMUgo||07.09.2004|
This application note describes ho to test and perform measurements on AMPS phones both using the remote-control program CMUgo and manually at the CMU200.
|1MA69: WLAN Tests According to Standard 802.11a/b/g1MA69: WLAN Tests According to Standard 802.11a/b/g||28.07.2004|
The Application Note summarises all measurements for WLAN test, according to the IEEE Standards 802.11a, b and g.
|7BM40: Converting DHEI (DigiCable Headend Expansion Interface) to ASI Using WOOSHCOM® Adapter 30107BM40: Converting DHEI (DigiCable Headend Expansion Interface) to ASI Using WOOSHCOM® Adapter 3010||08.06.2004|
This application note discusses the use of the WOOSHCOM® DHEI output interface adapter (model 3010), which converts the transport stream from DHEI format into DVB-ASI. Further processing and analysis of the transport stream signal then becomes available with any of the Rohde & Schwarz Test & Measurement instruments. It also describes how to extract an unencrypted transport streams out of a Motorola IRT.
|1MA66: Hints for Fast and Accurate Testing of GSM/EDGE Mobile Phone Power Amplifiers1MA66: Hints for Fast and Accurate Testing of GSM/EDGE Mobile Phone Power Amplifiers||29.04.2004|
Short measurement time in conjunction with high accuracy and repeatability of results are essential for efficient testing of mobile phone power amplifiers. Power Meter R&S NRP, Signal Generator R&S SMIQ, Spectrum Analyzers R&S FSP/FSU/FSQ and Power Supply R&S NGMO2 offer optimum characteristics such as high accuracy, fast settling speed and short measurement time in programmed mode. This application note concentrates on testing GSM/EDGE mobile power amplifiers and shows typical test setups and programming examples for Signal Generator R&S SMIQ and Spectrum Analyzer R&S FSP/FSU/FSQ, benchmark numbers and repeatability results.
|1GP47: Power Measurements on GSM/EDGE Signals with an NRT Power Reflection Meter1GP47: Power Measurements on GSM/EDGE Signals with an NRT Power Reflection Meter||01.12.2003|
The NRT power reflection meter can measure the average burst power of TDMA signals. This application note shows how to use this feature to measure the average power in the useful part of GSM/EDGE bursts.
|1MA61: CDMA2000® Base Station Test with R&S Equipment1MA61: CDMA2000® Base Station Test with R&S Equipment||05.09.2003|
This Application Note describes measurements compliant with the cdma2000® base station standard described in 3GPP2 C.S0010 / TIA/EIA-97 / ARIB STD-T64-C.S0010.
|1MA65: Fast and Accurate Test of Mobile Phone Boards1MA65: Fast and Accurate Test of Mobile Phone Boards||29.08.2003|
Short test times in conjunction with accurate and repeatable measurement results are essential when testing and calibrating mobile phones at board level. The R&S FSP Spectrum Analyzer offers wide dynamic range, stable and accurate results within shortest sweep time, making it the ideal choice for high-volume production testing. The utilisation of both the list mode feature and the marker list function for the Spectrum Analyzer R&S FSP, with its unsurpassed measurement speed via remote control are demonstrated in this application note.
|7BM06: Simulation of DVB-T Channel for Antenna Diversity Reception7BM06: Simulation of DVB-T Channel for Antenna Diversity Reception||31.07.2003|
DVB-T can be used for stationary, portable and – using the diversity technique – also mobile reception. Stationary reception via a Gaussian channel and a fixed Yagi antenna on the roof usually poses no problems. This is different with portable reception, for example on a park bench, if there are moving objects in the vicinity of the receiver that has been put up for optimal reception. These may be persons or any kind of vehicles that – while passing by the receiver - generate different types of reflections. With mobile reception, for example when driving on a motorway, poor receiving conditions have the most detrimental effect. Receiving conditions can be considerably improved by employing several antennas, a technique that is referred to as antenna diversity. This application note discusses the improvements that can be achieved with antenna diversity and explains how to simulate a DVB-T channel with the required characteristics by means of TV Test Transmitter R&S SFQ.
|7BM37: Transfer of Video Stream Files to and from DTV Recorder Generator DVRG7BM37: Transfer of Video Stream Files to and from DTV Recorder Generator DVRG||31.07.2003|
|7BM41: LAN / WAN Connection Of Instruments with Serial Interface By Using a Terminal Server7BM41: LAN / WAN Connection Of Instruments with Serial Interface By Using a Terminal Server||07.07.2003|
Remote control of test and measurement equipment with a serial interface is limited to PC’s located in close proximity determined by the length of a typical serial cable connection (several feet). Usage of terminal server allows connecting through LAN or WAN networks thus controlling the instrument from further away even around the globe. The terminal server interfaces between TCP/IP protocol and the RS232 line. This application describes set-up of a popular terminal server from Black Box® Corporation to remotely and conveniently control the instruments EFA with EFA Scan software and DVRM or DVMD with Realtime Monitor / Stream Explorer software through a LAN or WAN network.
|7BM45: Impulsive Noise EMC Measurements on Set Top Boxes7BM45: Impulsive Noise EMC Measurements on Set Top Boxes||07.07.2003|
The simulation of impulsive noise for tests on set-top boxes for digital TV (DTV) has so far been a highly complex task regarding the reproducibility of test signals. Using state-of-the-art technology from Rohde & Schwarz, this task can be accomplished with a simple test setup
|1EF47: Remote Control of R&S Spectrum and Network Analyzers via LAN1EF47: Remote Control of R&S Spectrum and Network Analyzers via LAN||25.06.2003|
Spectrum and network analyzers equipped with network interface cards can be integrated in Local Area Networks (LAN). This Application Note describes how to remote control these instruments over a LAN and use VXIpnp instrument drivers over a LAN.
|7BM29D: Messungen an S-VHS und RGB Signalen mit dem Videomeßsystem R&S®VSA und dem Videoanalysator R&S®UAF7BM29D: Messungen an S-VHS und RGB Signalen mit dem Videomeßsystem R&S®VSA und dem Videoanalysator R&S®UAF||21.02.2003|
Die Videoanalysatoren R&S VSA und R&S UAF sind für den Einsatz an FBAS-Signalen ausgelegt. Unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen sind sie aber auch geeignet die Primärfarben-Komponenten RGB und TV Signale nach dem S-Video Format zu vermessen.
|7BM29E: Measurements on S-VHS and RGB Signals with Video Measurement System R&S®VSA and Video Analyzer R&S®UAF7BM29E: Measurements on S-VHS and RGB Signals with Video Measurement System R&S®VSA and Video Analyzer R&S®UAF||21.02.2003|
The R&S VSA and R&S UAF video analyzers have been designed for measurements on CCVS signals. Under certain conditions, they can also be used for measuring the primary colour components RGB and TV signals in the S-Video format.
|1GA43: Measurements on RF radio tuners with Audio Analyzer R&S UPL and Signal Generator R&S SML with option -B51GA43: Measurements on RF radio tuners with Audio Analyzer R&S UPL and Signal Generator R&S SML with option -B5||11.02.2003|
A great number of measurements have to be performed to determine the quality of FM tuners. This Application Note presents a program that permits these measurements to be carried out in line with DIN EN60315-4.
|1MA49: Bluetooth Transmitter Measurements without Connection Setup1MA49: Bluetooth Transmitter Measurements without Connection Setup||04.02.2003|
This application note shows how to perform Bluetooth transmitter measurements with the CMU200 in a reduced signaling mode, in which the protocol handshake between the Bluetooth Equipment Under Test, the EUT, and CMU200 is skipped. This additional CMU200 feature allows both more flexible and faster RF testing of Bluetooth modules. A step-by-step example with SMIQ demonstrates the principles and serves as a reference for integrating this method in user-specific test strategies.
|1GP48: Generating Bluetooth TM* Signals with SMIQ and the Application Software SMIQ-K51GP48: Generating Bluetooth TM* Signals with SMIQ and the Application Software SMIQ-K5||04.02.2003|
A Bluetooth module is a universal radio interface using the license-free 2.4 GHz frequency band. Testing such a radio interface requires data packets as defined in the Bluetooth standard. The SMIQ-K5 application software configures the required data packets according to the standard and calculates defined elements of the packet such as the Sync. Word from the Bluetooth Device Address. Configured packets are transmitted along with modulation settings and filter parameters to SMIQ ready to perform a wide range of receiver tests.
|1EF50: Effective Test Procedures for Installing and Maintaining RF Transmitter Sites1EF50: Effective Test Procedures for Installing and Maintaining RF Transmitter Sites||31.01.2003|
This application note describes an effective method for generating test setups, performing measurements and producing test reports with the hand-held Spectrum Analyzer R&S FSH3
|1EF48: Power Measurement on Pulsed Signals with Spectrum Analyzers1EF48: Power Measurement on Pulsed Signals with Spectrum Analyzers||16.01.2003|
This application note provides information about measurements on pulsed signals with a spectrum analyzer. Examples show the practical realisation of measurements like pulse width, peak power and mean power, and the limitations of spectrum analyzer measurements. A method for long time average power measurement is explained.
|1MA62: Remote Setup for 3G High Dynamic Multi Charrier Signals with SMIQ03HD and FSU / FSQ1MA62: Remote Setup for 3G High Dynamic Multi Charrier Signals with SMIQ03HD and FSU / FSQ||13.12.2002|
Testing multi carrier power amplifiers of the 3rd Generation requires test signals with a high dynamic range. This application note describes how a 4 carrier 3G WCDMA signal can be generated and measured with the application software SET_MC4. The software sets up to 4 SMIQ03HDs to generate the signal, and an FSU or FSQ to immediately evaluate and analyze the Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) of the power amplifier. The setups are controlled remotely.
|1EZ51: Measurement Method for Determining the Equivalent Reflection Coefficient of Directional Couplers and Power Splitters1EZ51: Measurement Method for Determining the Equivalent Reflection Coefficient of Directional Couplers and Power Splitters||13.12.2002|
A new calibration method, presented by John R. Juroshek (NIST), offers fast and accurate determination of the equivalent source match of three-port devices like power-splitters and directional-couplers. The measurement result is directly displayed as normal trace on the R&S ZVM or R&S ZVK and can be stored in the most common data-formats for further processing and documentation.
|RSH01: Reproducable Noise Figure Measurement Using the Shielded Box ZA-SB10RSH01: Reproducable Noise Figure Measurement Using the Shielded Box ZA-SB10||16.10.2002|
Determining the noise figure of a component can be difficult in unshielded lab environments. Measuring small noise figures (less than 3 dB) and reproducing the results is sometimes not possible. These difficulties are caused by interference effects (electric fields) that can occur in any environment. A suitable remedy is a measurement environment able to shield the Device Under Test (DUT) against all interfering fields in the range up to 3 GHz. When used in conjunction with a spectrum analyzer and Noise Measurement Software FS-K3, the Shielded Box ZA-SB10 provides a complete noise measurement system.
|1GP45: R&S®SMIQB60 Arbitrary Waveform Generator for R&S®SMIQ1GP45: R&S®SMIQB60 Arbitrary Waveform Generator for R&S®SMIQ||24.09.2002|
The SMIQB60 option is an internal two channel arbitrary waveform generator based on the modulation coder SMIQB20. SMIQB60 uses an innovative interpolation filter technique to increase memory capacity.
|1GP55: Fast Remote Control for R&S®SMIQ Vector Signal Generators1GP55: Fast Remote Control for R&S®SMIQ Vector Signal Generators||23.09.2002|
Short setting times are among the most important criteria when it comes to choosing the right signal generator, especially in production. With its extremely short setting times for frequency (<3 ms) and level (<2.5 ms), the R&S SMIQ Vector Signal Generator family easily meets the requirement. In addition, SMIQ provides two special modes where setting times can be further reduced, Fast Restore mode and List mode. This Application Note decribes both modes and gives some application examples.
|1GP49: Generating Signals for Wireless LANs, Part I: IEEE 802.11b1GP49: Generating Signals for Wireless LANs, Part I: IEEE 802.11b||11.09.2002|
With Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) already entering the mass markets, generating signals to WLAN standards will become increasingly important. Signal sources are needed in R&D (or production) to test RF modules, to evaluate basic receiver functionality or when new designs are being evolved. This Application Note focuses on the most commonly used standard IEEE 802.11b. Topics covered include technical aspects of the physical layers as well as details on configuring available signal sources.
|1MA40: Testing Power Amplifiers for 3G Base Stations1MA40: Testing Power Amplifiers for 3G Base Stations||04.09.2002|
This application note describes essential test setups and test procedures for 3GPP power amplifiers especially for production lines.
|1GP52: Generating 3GPP Multi Carrier Signals for Amplifier Tests with R&S®SMIQ03HD and R&S®WinIQSIM™1GP52: Generating 3GPP Multi Carrier Signals for Amplifier Tests with R&S®SMIQ03HD and R&S®WinIQSIM™||02.09.2002|
Power amplifiers for WCDMA/3GPP base stations should have the best possible spectral purity and smallest intermodulation distortion, in order to prevent disturbance of the neighbouring channels. To test such amplifiers, signal generators are required that can generate WCDMA signals with low noise and intermodulation over a very wide dynamic range. The R&S SMIQ03HD signal generator with its outstanding Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) performance is especially designed for these applications. This application note describes how to use SMIQ03HD to get the best performance with 3GPP single and multi carrier signals.
|7BM44: Audio-to-Video Delay Measurement7BM44: Audio-to-Video Delay Measurement||27.08.2002|
A lack of lip synchronicity is an effect that can severely impair the quality of TV reception. With modern digital signal processing, this audio-to-video delay occurs much more often than in earlier times when analog signal generation was used. The total delay can reach several hundred milliseconds, which is immediately noticeable on a TV home receiver. To prevent such impair-ments, the audio-to-video delay must be measured.
|1SC01: How to implement GTSL outside a test stand environment1SC01: How to implement GTSL outside a test stand environment||02.07.2002|
GTSL (Generic Test Software Library ) is part of the production test systems R&S TS7100/ TS7180, simplifies very much test programming with the CMU200 and can be used together with the ”Test Executive” TestStand ® from National Instruments. This application note shows how GTSL can be implemented outside a TestStand ® environment and describes the accompanying source code of a demo ”Test Executive” developed in Microsoft ® Visual C++.
|1EF49: How To Demonstrate Improved ACLR Dynamic Range With FSU and Noise Correction1EF49: How To Demonstrate Improved ACLR Dynamic Range With FSU and Noise Correction||16.05.2002|
This application note provides information about the ACLR measurement with noise correction. The basic requirements and the limiting factors of a spectrum analyzer are explained. Dynamic range improvements by means of a noise correction is presented. Measurement examples show the practical realisation ACLR measurements.
|1EZ50: Conversion Gain Measurements on Mixers with Different Input and Output Impedances1EZ50: Conversion Gain Measurements on Mixers with Different Input and Output Impedances||16.05.2002|
This Application Note describes how to configure and calibrate R&S ZVR network analyzers for conversion gain measurements of devices with two ports that have different impedances. Thus accurate measurements on frequency-converting devices such as low noise converters of sattellite receivers are possible.
|7BM30: Phase Jitter in DTV Signals7BM30: Phase Jitter in DTV Signals||16.05.2002|
|7BM03: Bit Error Ratio BER in DVB as a Function of S/N7BM03: Bit Error Ratio BER in DVB as a Function of S/N||08.05.2002|
White noise of a defined power is superimposed on the DVB signal. From the noise and the modulated DVB signal, the S/N respectively the C/N ratio in dB (with consideration of the 'roll off' factor) can be calculated. After conversion, the corresponding BER is obtained for each S/N value.
|1MA57: Demonstration of BER Test with R&S®SMIQ or R&S®AMIQ and R&S®FSP or R&S®FSU1MA57: Demonstration of BER Test with R&S®SMIQ or R&S®AMIQ and R&S®FSP or R&S®FSU||06.05.2002|
Two test setups which demonstrate the Bit Error Rate (BER) test function of either an SMIQ (with option B21) or an AMIQ (with option B1) are described. The tester generates the FSK modulated RF or IF signal as well as carries out the BER test. The analog Marker FM Demodulator from an FSP/FSU spectrum analyzer is used as an online FSK demodulator.
|1GP54: R&S®SMIQ/ABFS TV SMIQ/ABFS remote display1GP54: R&S®SMIQ/ABFS TV SMIQ/ABFS remote display||02.05.2002|
SMIQ/ABFS TV shows the SMIQ or ABFS display remotely on any Windows™ PC
|1SP01: Produktionstestsysteme- Funktionstest von Businesstelefonen1SP01: Produktionstestsysteme- Funktionstest von Businesstelefonen||08.04.2002|
|7BM38: Design and Use of a DTV Monitoring System consisting of R&S®DVQ(M), R&S®DVMD/DVRM and R&S®DVRG7BM38: Design and Use of a DTV Monitoring System consisting of R&S®DVQ(M), R&S®DVMD/DVRM and R&S®DVRG||15.02.2002|
When monitoring transmission systems it is often necessary to control the monitoring equipment and to check the measurement results from a remote station. The user may also be interested to know which transmission data cause an error or violate a standard. Rohde & Schwarz offers several instruments that meet all these requirements in the field of digital TV transmission. This application note gives an overview of the design and use of a DTV monitoring system made up of the above-mentioned instruments and meeting the requirements.
|1EZ27: Frequency Conversion Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR1EZ27: Frequency Conversion Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR||25.01.2002|
Vector Network Analyzer ZVR is able to control two external generators via the IEC/IEEE bus in the frequency conversion mode. This feature allows to make automatic measurements on DUTs with up to two frequency converters. For the measurement of the conversion response over the whole frequency range, one of the two generators must be swept. Since this frequency variation is controlled via the IEC/IEEE bus, the sweep time must be increased (automatically) depending on the used generator. Very short sweep time is possible by the use of a generator SME or SMP and the IEC+TTL remote mode. In this case the generator operates in the frequency list mode triggered by ZVR.
|1EZ28: Producing Epicycloid Traces1EZ28: Producing Epicycloid Traces||25.01.2002|
This is a very special application note for all those who have seen the ZVatch (ZVR watch) and not really believed the nice red curve on its face. This curve can actually be generated with a Vector Network Analyzer ZVR.
|7BM07: Integration of DTV Recorder Generator DVRG into a TCP/IP Network7BM07: Integration of DTV Recorder Generator DVRG into a TCP/IP Network||24.01.2002|
The DTV recorder generator DVRG is a useful tool for recording and replaying MPEG2 transport streams in addition to uncompressed video (ITU -R B.T. 601).[[ br />Due to their length and data rate the streams can become very large and might not be able to transfer through the internal CD-R drive. This application note describes how a Microsoft network can be setup for a quick file transfer and remote operation of DVRG.
|1EZ38: Frequently Asked Questions about Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR1EZ38: Frequently Asked Questions about Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR||23.01.2002|
A collection of frequently occurring customer questions on using the ZVR analyzer, calibration, virtual transform networks, and additional applications.
|1EE20: Storing and Loading Complete Test Receiver Data Records via IEC/IEEE-Bus1EE20: Storing and Loading Complete Test Receiver Data Records via IEC/IEEE-Bus||18.01.2002|
Especially with test receivers not comprising a built-in disk drive (ESHS10, ESVS10, ESVD, ESVB and ESPC) it is necessary to store instrument settings before a firmware update or before changing the battery of the static memory to be able to restore the settings later on. Frequently it is desirable to exchange settings or comprehensive data like transducer sets between receivers, or receivers have to be set up to suit different applications.
|1EE05: Spectral display of RF analysis of Test Receivers on a PC1EE05: Spectral display of RF analysis of Test Receivers on a PC||18.01.2002|
All models of the receiver family ESXS are equipped with a remote-control interface to IEC 625-2 (IEEE 488.2). Via this bus almost all instrument settings can be effected, measurements triggered and test results read in by the PC.
|1EE13: Radiomonitoring with Test Receivers R&S®ESN/ESVN1EE13: Radiomonitoring with Test Receivers R&S®ESN/ESVN||18.01.2002|
The constantly increasing number of telecommunication services and subscribers is putting more and more pressure on the availability of already scarse frequencies. Authorities responsible for monitoring and regulating the radio traffic are confronted with more and more complex problems relating to radiomonitoring and frequency management. Without exact data - a prerequisite for monitoring existing installations and planning new services - it is impossible to solve the problem. It is essential to use the proper measurement equipment. This Application Note deals with the following measurements: Measuring various signal parameters at defined frequencies. Monitoring emissions for compliance with specified limits for field strength, modulation depth/index, frequency deviation and offset.
|1EE19: Exchanging Data Records between Different Test Receiver Models1EE19: Exchanging Data Records between Different Test Receiver Models||18.01.2002|
Rohde & Schwarz test receivers of the ESXS, ESS and ESXN series are equipped with a 3.5' floppy-disk drive so that receiver settings, scan results, limit lines, transducer factors and whole sets of transducers can be stored on a floppy disk and reloaded into the receiver. Data can only be loaded into the receiver type from which they have been stored. The reason is that data eg from an ESHS30, which operates in the frequency range from 9 kHz to 30 Hz, should not be loaded into an ESVS30 as the data of the two units may be incompatible to because of the different frequency ranges alone (ESVS30: 20 MHz to 1000 MHz). However, in some cases it may be desirable to load an ESVS20 file into an ESVS30, or an ESN file into an ESVN40.
|1EE21: ASCII Conversion of Binary Data from Test Receiver for Generation of Test Report on PC1EE21: ASCII Conversion of Binary Data from Test Receiver for Generation of Test Report on PC||18.01.2002|
It is frequently desired to process the results stored on the floppy on a PC, eg for the generation of customer-specific test reports by means of a word processing system. To enable processing on an external PC, the binary data usually need conversion into an ASCII format. This is possible by means of the ESXS2ASC.EXE program. The program is available free of charge from your Rohde & Schwarz representative.
|1EF32: ACP Measurement according to IS 54 (NADC) using the R&S®FSE Spectrum Analyzers1EF32: ACP Measurement according to IS 54 (NADC) using the R&S®FSE Spectrum Analyzers||17.01.2002|
In digital wireless communication systems one or multiple users are assigned to a physical RF channel. With analog systems only one user per carrier is possible. Output spectrum of the transmitter has to be restricted to the assigned channel in order to avoid interference with the neighbor channels. With the switch over to digital modulation formats more user per channel are possible. They share one channel by using only part of the time for transmission (Time Division Multiplex Access, TDMA) or by coding the transmission by orthogonal sequences for distinction to other users (Code Division Multiples Access, CDMA). Beneath the restriction of modulation spectrum with TDMA systems also time behavior of the transmitted signal is critical. One reason is that in a multi-user situation only one user is allowed to transmit within his assigned time slots. Another reason is that by switching a carrier on and off spectrum of the transmitter splatters and causes additional interference in other RF channels.
|1EF24: Measurements on PCS1900 Base Stations According to J-STD-0071EF24: Measurements on PCS1900 Base Stations According to J-STD-007||17.01.2002|
The following application note describes the function and operation of user menus for FSE Spectrum Analyzers including option Vector Signal Analysis (FSE-B7). For measurements according to the PCS 1900 standard user menus are provided, which perform settings on FSE for Base Station testing required in the standard. The menu and the accompanying setups are stored on a floppy disk. For operation of the menus firmware version 1.40 or higher is required. Option Vector Signal Analysis FSE-B7 has to be installed for the use of the application menu.
|1EF16: Phase Noise Measurements with Spectrum Analyzers of the FSE family1EF16: Phase Noise Measurements with Spectrum Analyzers of the FSE family||16.01.2002|
In addition to frequency, power and long-term stability, short-term stability or its equivalent, phase noise, is an important characteristic of signal sources. For example, the phase noise of conversion oscillators of receivers obtained in the presence of a strong signal determines adjacent-channel sensitivity. In the case of transmitters, the phase noise of the oscillator together with the modulator characteristics is responsible for the power generated in adjacent channels. The phase noise of oscillators or synthesizers and the relevant measurements therefore play an important role in radio transmission systems.
|1EF17: Measurement of Spurious Emissions of GSM, DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 Transmitters with Spectrum Analyzers of the R&S®FSE Family1EF17: Measurement of Spurious Emissions of GSM, DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 Transmitters with Spectrum Analyzers of the R&S®FSE Family||16.01.2002|
Measuring the spurious emissions of transmitters used in GSM, DCS 1800 and PCS 1900 networks requires highly complex test setups since con-ventional spectrum analyzers do not have the necessary dynamic range. To obtain this range, notch filters are used to suppress the useful sig-nal. The spectrum analyzers of the FSE family make it possible for the first time to verify com-pliance with stipulated limit values for spurious emissions within the transmission band and out-side the reception band without the use of notch filters. The measurement problem and its solution by means of FSE are described in the following by way of the example of a GSM base station.
|1EF18: Measurement of Power Ramps of GSM, DCS1800 and PCS1900 Signals with Spectrum Analyzers of the R&S®FSE Family1EF18: Measurement of Power Ramps of GSM, DCS1800 and PCS1900 Signals with Spectrum Analyzers of the R&S®FSE Family||16.01.2002|
TDMA communications systems like GSM, DCS 1800 or PCS 1900 make effective use of the frequency spectrum by assigning several subscribers to the same frequency channel. Each subscriber has access to one predefined time slot for transmitting information. With GSM eight subscribers share one frequency channel with a bandwidth of 200 kHz. In order not to disturb the other users of the 200-kHz channel it has to be ensured that, for instance, a mobile sends in the assigned time slot only and that no power is emitted by the transmitter at other times. For this reason the transmitter power is practically switched off in the transmission intervals.
|1EF23: Measurements on GSM Base Stations According to Rec. 11.201EF23: Measurements on GSM Base Stations According to Rec. 11.20||16.01.2002|
The following application note describes the function and operation of user menus for FSE Spectrum Analyzers including option Vector Signal Analysis (FSE-B7). For measurements according to the GSM standard user menus are provided, which perform settings on FSE for Base Station testing required in the standard. The menu and the accompanying setups are stored on a floppy disk. For operation of the menus firmware version 1.40 or higher is required. Option Vector Signal Analysis FSE-B7 has to be installed for the use of the application menu.
|1CM32: GSM / EDGE Base Station Bit Error Rate Testing with R&S®CMU3001CM32: GSM / EDGE Base Station Bit Error Rate Testing with R&S®CMU300||15.01.2002|
This Application Note provides an overview of the Bit Error Rate (BER) test capabilities of the Universal Radiocommunication Tester CMU300 on GSM / EDGE Base Stations. It includes information about measurement principles, the supported test environment and channels, CMU settings, operation, and ordering information.
|1EF45: Spurious Emission Measurement on 3GPP Base Station Transmitters1EF45: Spurious Emission Measurement on 3GPP Base Station Transmitters||10.01.2002|
This application note provides information about the spurious emission measurement on 3 GPP base station transmitters. The basic requirements and the limiting factors of a spectrum analyzer are explained in detail. Dynamic range calculations with measurement examples show the practical realisation of spurious emission measurements.
|1GA42: Transfering Files from a R&S®UPL Audio Analyzer to an external PC via the RS-232-C Interface1GA42: Transfering Files from a R&S®UPL Audio Analyzer to an external PC via the RS-232-C Interface||15.11.2001|
The UPL Audio Analyzer can be remote-controlled via the IEEE bus or the RS-232-C interface. Test results are output either individually or in blocks. ASCII or binary files such as setup files can be transferred to the audio analyzer from an external controller. This Application transfers files from the audio analyzer to an external controller via the serial interface. Utility programs for the audio analyzer and the external controller (PC) are required.
|1GP41: 3GPP FDD Base Station Tests with Vector Signal Generator R&S®SMIQ1GP41: 3GPP FDD Base Station Tests with Vector Signal Generator R&S®SMIQ||26.10.2001|
This application note describes in detail how 3GPP FDD base stations can be tested with signal generators, according to 3GPP specification TS25.141. Nearly all of those tests can be performed using signal generators and analyzers. For each measurement, the recommended test setup and signal generator settings are given.
|1MA43: Swept Adjacent Channel Power Analysis on Digital TV Amplifiers1MA43: Swept Adjacent Channel Power Analysis on Digital TV Amplifiers||16.10.2001|
Adjacent Channel Power performance of power amplifiers used in digital TV systems has to be guaranteed over a wide frequency range, 54 to 890 MHz, which may lead to time consuming test procedures. The application software described here provides swept ACP analysis, using AMIQ and SMIQ for signal generation and FSP, FSU or FSE for signal analysis. ACP measurement is performed according to FCC Regulation 47CFR 73.622(h).
|7TS01: NETLINK7TS01: NETLINK||01.10.2001|
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|1EF44: Measurements on 3GPP Base Station Transmitter Signals1EF44: Measurements on 3GPP Base Station Transmitter Signals||17.08.2001|
This application note explains the measurements on 3GPP Base Station Transmitter signals according to TS 25.141, using the Signal Analyzer FSIQ with the Code Domain Power application firmware FSIQ-K72.
|1MA46: Transmitter and Receiver Measurements on Bluetooth Modules with R&S®CMU2001MA46: Transmitter and Receiver Measurements on Bluetooth Modules with R&S®CMU200||06.08.2001|
The Rohde & Schwarz CMU200 test set can be configured as a standalone Bluetooth test solution for production, R&D, service and QA use, and is the fastest signalling tester for Bluetooth test modes available. This document is intended as a guide to configuring the available measurements to achieve test scenarios very close to the relevant Bluetooth test specifications. BLUETOOTH is a trademark owned by its proprietor and used by Rohde & Schwarz under license.
|1GP43: Program for Measurement Uncertainty Analysis with Rohde & Schwarz Power Meters1GP43: Program for Measurement Uncertainty Analysis with Rohde & Schwarz Power Meters||26.07.2001|
The application note describes the Measurement Uncertainty Analysis Program NRV-Z. The program is used to determine measurement uncertainties that inevitably arise when using power meters. In particular, it covers the NRV-Z family of thermal sensors and diode sensors for high-precision power measurements, as well as the compatible basic units NRVD, NRVS and URV55.
|7BM22: Calibration Procedure for Video Equipment7BM22: Calibration Procedure for Video Equipment||20.07.2001|
Since the video signal - composite or component - is a most complex one regarding the spectral density or even the group delay in the baseband, you need special procedures to measure the signal parameters with an objective and absolute accuracy of less than one percent over the whole frequency range up to 6 MHz. The following describes a method allowing the precise measurement of a baseband signal, which then may be taken for the calibration of video analyzers such as the well-known R&S units UAF or UVF and future products.
|7BM27: The most common abbreviations used in the standards for digital TV: MPEG2, DVB and ATSC7BM27: The most common abbreviations used in the standards for digital TV: MPEG2, DVB and ATSC||20.07.2001|
The introduction of the transmission of compressed TV signals to MPEG2 and DVB for cable, satellite and terrestrial (COFDM) lead to the creation of many abbreviations that have to be explained to the “uninitiated”. In the previous three lines, three abbreviations whose meanings are not obvious have already been mentioned. A table explaining what these abbreviations mean is therefore essential.
|7BM09: C/N Ratio at Low Carrier Frequencies in R&S®SFQ7BM09: C/N Ratio at Low Carrier Frequencies in R&S®SFQ||20.07.2001|
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|7BM15: 2T pulse shapes7BM15: 2T pulse shapes||20.07.2001|
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|7BM23: ZONE PLATE SIGNALS 525 Lines Standard M/NTSC7BM23: ZONE PLATE SIGNALS 525 Lines Standard M/NTSC||20.07.2001|
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|7BM08: SFQ_CNCAL: SFQ Noise Correction Calibration Software7BM08: SFQ_CNCAL: SFQ Noise Correction Calibration Software||20.07.2001|
This program applies to SFQs which are equipped with the first generation of noise generators (Var 02) and with FW version 1.24 or higher. [[ br /> One of the most important measurements of DVB systems concern noise margins. The C/N signal produced by the SFQ needs to be as accurate as possible. [[ br /> The present application note is intended to this purpose, with a special calibration process.
|7BM11: Measurement the inherent noise of a TV Receiver/Demodulator7BM11: Measurement the inherent noise of a TV Receiver/Demodulator||20.07.2001|
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|7BM16: Video Analyzer R&S®UAF as IEC 625 (IEEE 488)-BUS Controller7BM16: Video Analyzer R&S®UAF as IEC 625 (IEEE 488)-BUS Controller||20.07.2001|
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|7BM21: Bandwidth of video signals from generators with purely digital signal generation7BM21: Bandwidth of video signals from generators with purely digital signal generation||20.07.2001|
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|7BM19: The digital Video Standard according to ITU-R BT. 601/6567BM19: The digital Video Standard according to ITU-R BT. 601/656||20.07.2001|
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|7BM13: Delay measurements in digital TV studios with Digital Video Component Analyzer VCA7BM13: Delay measurements in digital TV studios with Digital Video Component Analyzer VCA||20.07.2001|
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|7BM18: Incorrect colours in the RGB display of the 'digital' colour bar7BM18: Incorrect colours in the RGB display of the 'digital' colour bar||20.07.2001|
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|7BM28: Vision-sound intercarrier measurement7BM28: Vision-sound intercarrier measurement||20.07.2001|
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|7BM20: Time Delay Measurement in the Digital Studio7BM20: Time Delay Measurement in the Digital Studio||20.07.2001|
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|7BM25: Signals produced by SAF and SFF - Standard BG/PAL and N/PAL7BM25: Signals produced by SAF and SFF - Standard BG/PAL and N/PAL||20.07.2001|
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|7BM24: ZONE PLATE SIGNALS 625 Lines Standard BG/PAL7BM24: ZONE PLATE SIGNALS 625 Lines Standard BG/PAL||20.07.2001|
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|7BM12: RF Level Measurement Accuracy of DTV Test Receivers7BM12: RF Level Measurement Accuracy of DTV Test Receivers||20.07.2001|
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|7BM10: Reference factor between RF (referenced to sync top level) and VF7BM10: Reference factor between RF (referenced to sync top level) and VF||20.07.2001|
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|1GP46: PC Software AlmanacUploader for R&S®SMIQ with option R&S®SMIQB51 (Digital Standard GPS)1GP46: PC Software AlmanacUploader for R&S®SMIQ with option R&S®SMIQB51 (Digital Standard GPS)||02.07.2001|
This software converts System Effectiveness Model (SEM) almanac files to Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation data as transmitted by GPS satellites, and transfers the data to SMIQ to generate GPS signals in combination with option SMIQB51 – Digital Standard GPS.
|1GP42: Level Accuracy and Electronic Level Settings of SMIQ1GP42: Level Accuracy and Electronic Level Settings of SMIQ||14.05.2001|
Most signal generators are equipped with a mechanical attenuator. Those attenuators are exposed to mechanical stress due to mechanical switching. To avoid mechanical stress on the attenuator the SMIQ is additionally equipped with two electronic attenuator functions that provide level settings without degrading attenuator performance and without exposing the attenuator to mechanical stress. These functions are especially useful in production and production testing where frequent level setting is necessary.
|7BM04: Hints for Using the Ethernet Interface of DVQ7BM04: Hints for Using the Ethernet Interface of DVQ||26.04.2001|
This application note is to provide a basic understanding as to the configuration and control of DVQ via an Ethernet link.
|FTK01_0E: Web over DTVFTK01_0E: Web over DTV||30.03.2001|
DTV IP Inserter DIP
|1MA34: Generating and Analyzing CDMA2000® Signals1MA34: Generating and Analyzing CDMA2000® Signals||27.03.2001|
This application note describes measurements compliant with the cdma2000 standard described in TIA/EIA-97-C and TIA/EIA-98-C. The primary focus is on solutions for generating and analyzing cdma2000 signals with equipment from Rohde & Schwarz. The special characteristics that make the signal generators and signal analyzers eminently suitable for this purpose are detailed.
|1GP44: PC Software SetupAccelerator: High speed save / restore for 3GPP Signals (for SMIQ option SMIQB48)1GP44: PC Software SetupAccelerator: High speed save / restore for 3GPP Signals (for SMIQ option SMIQB48)||21.03.2001|
This software provides quick save and restore for SMIQ 3GPP/W-CDMA setups, including channel coding scenarios with different parameters and varying data rates. Parameter changes in 3GPP/W-CDMA menus often require a lengthy re-computation of the signal to generate: use SetupAccelerator to save up to eight precomputed data sequences with all characteristic SMIQ system parameters to a PC and upload these signals back to the signal generator within about two minutes, when needed.
|7BM05: Fading Channel Simulation in DVB7BM05: Fading Channel Simulation in DVB||06.02.2001|
Fading is known from shortwave transmission, where the received field strength level may strongly vary due to atmospheric disturbances. In analog TV, the term 'fading' is practically unknown. Rather, one talks of 'antenna shadows' or 'ghost images'. The effect in question, however, is fading, ie constant reflection of the eletromagnetic waves emitted by the TV transmitter by walls of buildings, mountain slopes and similar reflecting natural or artificial obstacles. In analog TV, fading is of minor importance since the effects thereof can be eliminated almost completely through the directivity and exact orientation of the Yagi roof antenna for stationary TV reception at home. [[ br />Fading effects can also be observed in analog cable TV, for example in a block of flats linked to the cable network with one or several antenna sockets in every flat. If the taps for the sockets are not match-terminated, reflections with constant level and constant phase arise which may cause level reductions of several dB at exactly calculable points in the cable. [[ br />Moreover, the reception of TV signals broadcast via satellite can be impaired by fading. A known phenomenon is flickering of the received picture, produced by planes flying past or a drop in receive field strength caused by an approaching thunderstorm. All the above receive conditions have one thing in common: reception is stationary with a direct line of sight to the TV transmitter. [[ br />Looking at receive conditions in DVB, the effects in cable and satellite reception (DVB-C and DVB-S) are found to be similar as in analog reception. In these two modes reception is stationary, too. Terrestrial transmission (DVB-T) not only provides for stationary operation but also for portable and mobile reception. This considerably accentuates the effects of fading. [[ br />In this application note we investigate fading effects in DVB, with the emphasis on those in DVB-T signals.
|1MA31: Generating Bluetooth RF Test Signals with R&S®SMIQ Signal Generator1MA31: Generating Bluetooth RF Test Signals with R&S®SMIQ Signal Generator||30.01.2001|
With SMIQ Signal Generator you can generate the most important Bluetooth RF test signals fast and conveniently. This application note comes with files containing modulation data for various payload patterns and burst lengths. A list of patterns is included. With the transfer software, also enclosed with this application note, you can load the data records into SMIQ and start testing immediately. BLUETOOTH is a registered trademark of Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson, Sweden.
|1EZ48: Measurement Accuracy of the R&S®ZVK Vector Network Analyzer1EZ48: Measurement Accuracy of the R&S®ZVK Vector Network Analyzer||24.01.2001|
Measurement deviations due to systematic errors of a network analysis system can be drastically reduced by an appropriate system error calibration. After system error correction, the residual measurement uncertainties are - besides the stability, linearity, and dynamic range of the network analyzer system - mainly affected by the quality of the calibration standards and the repeatability of the connections. The effective measurement accuracy of the network analysis system can be determined using the results of successive verification measurements utilizing highly precise verification standards.
|1EF41: Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP1EF41: Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP||12.01.2001|
This application note explains the concept of Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) measurement on 3GPP W-CDMA signals with the spectrum analyzer FSP. Optimum operation for both the integrated bandwidth method and the new time domain method are shown via explanation of the signal behavior and the internal structure of the FSP. With the time domain method the spectrum analyzer family FSP provides a new approach featuring a very short measurement time compared to the integrated bandwidth method.
|1MA32: Noise Figure Measurements on Amplifiers in Pulsed Mode1MA32: Noise Figure Measurements on Amplifiers in Pulsed Mode||19.12.2000|
Power amplifiers in digital TDMA mobile phones are fed with current only during the active slot to save power. Using conventional measuring equipment, the noise figure, an important parameter in power amplifiers, can only be determined with the amplifier in continuous operation. However, continuous operation can lead to amplifier overload and produce distorted results. Now there is a convenient way of determining the noise figure of amplifiers with pulsed power supply: using a Spectrum Analyzer (FSP or FSE or FSIQ or ESI), Noise Measurement Software FS-K3 and a function or pulse generator.
|1GP39: WCDMA Signal Generator Solutions by Rohde & Schwarz1GP39: WCDMA Signal Generator Solutions by Rohde & Schwarz||27.11.2000|
The SMIQB Vector Signal Generator and the AMIQ I/Q Modulation Generator with the WinIQSIM™ software are outstanding signal sources for 3rd generation communication systems. This paper describes how to apply R&S signal generators for 3GPP WCDMA measurements, and introduces 3GPP WCDMA and related measurement applications.
|1GP40: Floppy Disk Control of the I/Q Modulation Generator R&S®AMIQ1GP40: Floppy Disk Control of the I/Q Modulation Generator R&S®AMIQ||26.07.2000|
The I/Q Modulation Generator AMIQ is best controlled by the software package WinIQSIM™. However, for some applications it is necessary to control the AMIQ via a floppy disk. The application note introduces a convenient and easy to use solution for creating a control floppy disk. A detailed description of the process to generate a waveform to fit on a 1.44 MB floppy disk, and how to transfer the waveform to the AMIQ and trigger the waveform from the floppy disk is provided.
|1MA19: Mobile Tests for GSM under Fading Conditions1MA19: Mobile Tests for GSM under Fading Conditions||23.05.2000|
This application note describes how the most important fading tests for mobile phonesin all GSM frequency bands can be carried out cost-effectively using a combination of a CRTP/C02 Radiocommunication Tester and SMIQ Signal Generator.
|1MA23: Production Tests on ICO User Terminals with SMIQ and FSE/FSIQ1MA23: Production Tests on ICO User Terminals with SMIQ and FSE/FSIQ||08.05.2000|
The combination of an SMIQ Signal Generator and an FSE / FSIQ Analyzer enables the most important transmitter and receiver tests on ICO user terminals in quality management and development. This application note presents a series of quick tests in unsynchronized, non-signalling mode.
|1MA24: Calibrating the CMD Output Level for BER1MA24: Calibrating the CMD Output Level for BER||10.03.2000|
The CMD 57/59 output level for BER measurement can be calibrated to high accuracy to match GSM 11.21, (with modulated signals and adjacent timeslots + 50 dB above the used timeslot) using a simple test setup containing an NRVD power meter and an FSE spectrum analyzer.
|1GP38: Creating Test Signals for Bluetooth® with R&S®AMIQ / R&S®WinIQSIM™ and R&S®SMIQ1GP38: Creating Test Signals for Bluetooth® with R&S®AMIQ / R&S®WinIQSIM™ and R&S®SMIQ||01.02.2000|
Bluetooth is a universal radio interface using the license-free 2.45 GHz frequency band. It enables electronic devices to connect and communicate without connecting cables in short-range, ad hoc networks. As the SMIQ Vector Signal Generator in combination with I/Q Modulation Generator AMIQ is able to generate nearly any kind of digitally modulated signal, this combination is also an ideal signal source for Bluetooth® test signals.
|1MA10: AMIQ-K2 - Program for Transferring Various I/Q Formated Data to AMIQ1MA10: AMIQ-K2 - Program for Transferring Various I/Q Formated Data to AMIQ||24.11.1999|
The I/Q-Modulation Generator AMIQ provides high precision I/Q analog output for data calculated by the software WinIQSIM.
|1MA11: MobiDemo - Program for Demonstration of Combination R&S®SMIQ + FSx1MA11: MobiDemo - Program for Demonstration of Combination R&S®SMIQ + FSx||09.07.1999|
MobiDemo is an application software for controlling a combination of Generator SMIQ and Analyzer FSE/ FSE-B7 or FSIQ. MobiDemo offers a convenient user interface to facilitate testing of components used in digital mobile radio systems, for instance amplifiers or filters. The software can handle the GSM, PHS, IRIDIUM, IS-95 and W-CDMA standards. The corresponding test signals can be activated on SMIQ with a few keystrokes and mouse clicks. FSE/FSIQ is set up in accordance with SMIQ and analyzes signals in the modulation analysis or adjacent-channel power measurement mode. The settings for SMIQ and FSE/FSIQ are transferred via the IEC/IEEE bus.
|1GPAN08: R&S®SME with Option DM Coder Hints for Using the Data Generator1GPAN08: R&S®SME with Option DM Coder Hints for Using the Data Generator||01.07.1999|
A programmable data generator such as the combination of SME with option SME-B11 is a novelty with signal generators. To make it easy for the user to get acquainted with the option and to ensure efficient operation, possible applications are described below.
|1GP37: Creating alternating GSM / EDGE signals with R&S®AMIQ and R&S®WinIQSIM™1GP37: Creating alternating GSM / EDGE signals with R&S®AMIQ and R&S®WinIQSIM™||01.07.1999|
The I/Q modulation generator AMIQ with software WinIQSIM™ has the capabilities to generate test signals for EDGE. This application note gives some insight into these capabilities and how to use them.
|1GPAN28: Frequency Hopping for GSM Base Station Tests with Signal Generators SME1GPAN28: Frequency Hopping for GSM Base Station Tests with Signal Generators SME||01.07.1999|
While Mobile phones are allowed to require approximately 3 time slots for switching from transmission to reception, base stations must be able to transmit and receive at a new frequency in every time slot in the frequency hopping mode. This behaviour must of course be tested and measurements carried out on the base station transmitter and receiver. Since there is no signal generator which is able to settle at different frequencies from one to the next time slot with GSM modulation, a solution to this problem was found by linking two Signal Generators SME in such a way that they alternately provide signals at different frequencies.
|1GP36: Bit Error Rate Measurements with R&S®AMIQ and R&S®WinIQSIM™1GP36: Bit Error Rate Measurements with R&S®AMIQ and R&S®WinIQSIM™||01.07.1999|
This application note describes the principle of the bit error rate test with AMIQ / WinIQSIM™ and provides two example setups demonstrating the capabilities of the AMIQ-B1 option. One demo setup is for stand-alone demonstration and requires only WinIQSIM™ and AMIQ, the second uses an FSE spectrum analyzer as the device under test, and can easily be adapted to real test environments.
|1GPAN35: Generation of Test Signals for IS-136 (NADC) with Signal Generator SME1GPAN35: Generation of Test Signals for IS-136 (NADC) with Signal Generator SME||01.07.1999|
Communication systems according to IS-136 (NADC) use Time Division Multiplex Access (TDMA) for the communication between base station and mobile stations. There are 6 time slots available. Depending on the amount of data, which have to be transmitted, the system uses full rate channels or half rate channels. A full rate channel means, that the mobile is accessed every 3rd time slot (e.g time slot 1 and 3, time slot 2 and 4 or time slot 3 and 6). With half rate channels the mobile is accessed every 6th time slot. Full rate and half rate channels may be mixed on demand. The base stations transmit continous on their frequency. Depending on the used combination of full rate and half rate channels the base station uses a different sequence of synchronisation words. The mobile stations use bursted transmission with one of the synchronisation words S1 to S6 defined in the standard. Signal Generator SME is excellently suited to generate these signals to test either base station receivers or mobile phone receivers. Together with the modulation data supplied with this application note the SME serves as a signal source for various test and measurement applications in the whole frequency range of IS-136 (NADC).
|1GPAN14: Simulation of BCCH Channel of GSM/PCN Base Station with Signal Generator SME1GPAN14: Simulation of BCCH Channel of GSM/PCN Base Station with Signal Generator SME||01.07.1999|
Propagation measurements are indispensable in the planning of digital, cellular mobile radio net-works. To find the optimum sites for the base stations, a mobile test transmitter system simulating the base station is operated from a number of possible locations. The test receiver system is accommodated in a vehicle, which is driven along a test route to perform measurements. The parameters measured, such as level, bit error rate or channel impulse response, provide information on the coverage within the cell. The main problem is to minimize interference caused by multipath propagation in the reception area.
|7BM02: Remote Control of STREAM EXPLORER via OLE Interfacing7BM02: Remote Control of STREAM EXPLORER via OLE Interfacing||31.03.1999|
The present application note describes the possibilities of the Stream Explorer to be remotely controlled by some peripheral program via OLE. Extensions are also discussed, widening the fields of application of such a Client-Server architecture.
|7BM01: Remote Usage of STREAM EXPLORER via Ethernet Network7BM01: Remote Usage of STREAM EXPLORER via Ethernet Network||31.03.1999|
In frequent cases, it appears that the MPEG2 decoder is not located in the control/monitoring room. The present application note describes how to operate a remote control of up to four DVMDs over an ethernet link.
|1EF43: Frequency Range Extension of Spectrum Analyzers with Harmonic Mixers1EF43: Frequency Range Extension of Spectrum Analyzers with Harmonic Mixers||05.03.1999|
This application note describes the principle of harmonic mixing and the requirements to be met by spectrum analyzers and external mixers.
|1MA15: Measurement of Frequency Settling Time of Synthesizers and Transmitters1MA15: Measurement of Frequency Settling Time of Synthesizers and Transmitters||12.02.1999|
An FSE Spectrum Analyser equipped with the Vector Signal Analysis option (FSE-B7) can measure oscillator settling time or transmitter attack and release times with high accuracy up to 40 GHz. No additional measurement equipment is needed.
|1EZ47: Using the Frequency Conversion Mode of the R&S®ZVR Vector Network Analyzer1EZ47: Using the Frequency Conversion Mode of the R&S®ZVR Vector Network Analyzer||19.01.1999|
Using option ZVR-B4 (Frequency Converting Measurements), a ZVR Vector Network Analyzer can be used for measurements on frequency converting devices such as mixers and amplifiers. Using the ZVR's ARBITRARY mode, the source and receiver frequency ranges of the ZVR's generator and receiver, plus for two external signal generators, can be defined independently. As a result, mixer and intermodulation products such as conversion loss or sampling mixers, can all be measured. Used together with option ZVR-B6 (Reference Channel Ports), group delay measurements can also be made on frequency converting devices.
|1EZ46: Controlling External Generators and Power Meters with Network Analyzer ZVR1EZ46: Controlling External Generators and Power Meters with Network Analyzer ZVR||19.10.1998|
With options ZVR-B4 (mixer measurements), ZVR-B5 (nonlinear measurements) and ZVR-B7 (power calibration) installed, signal generators and power meters can be controlled from ZVR network analyzers via the IEC/IEEE bus. Customary signal generators and power meters are supported by the device firmware. This application note describes how user-specific configuration files can be generated for and adjusted to external equipment of these two categories.
|1MA16: Demonstration of BER Test with AMIQ controlled by WinIQSim1MA16: Demonstration of BER Test with AMIQ controlled by WinIQSim||29.09.1998|
A test setup is described for easy demonstration of the Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) function of AMIQ/AMIQ-B1. The test setup contains I/Q Modulation Generator AMIQ/AMIQ-B1 controlled by I/Q Simulation Software WinIQSIM, Vector Signal Generator SMIQ and Spectrum/Vector Signal Analyzer FSE/FSE-B7. The FSE with FSE-B7 is used as online FSK demodulator (setting: Analog demodulation, FM Signal, DC coupling, Real Time On) to demodulate the SMIQ RF signal FSK-modulated by PRBS data. The AMIQ is controlled by WinIQSIM software and receives the demodulated AF output signal from the FSE for BER testing.
|1EZ45: Virtual Embedding Networks for R&S®ZVR and R&S®ZVC Network Analyzers1EZ45: Virtual Embedding Networks for R&S®ZVR and R&S®ZVC Network Analyzers||25.09.1998|
Embedding and De-Embedding of virtual transformation networks for measuring scattering parameters with a ZVR or ZVC vector network analyzer.
|1EZ43: T-Check Accuracy Test for Vector Network Analyzers utilizing a Tee-junction1EZ43: T-Check Accuracy Test for Vector Network Analyzers utilizing a Tee-junction||04.08.1998|
The measurement accuracy of vector network analyzers can be tested simply, easily and quickly, with a simple DUT which consists of a common tee-junction with one port, terminated with a resistive load Z, and the T-Check program. The four S-parameters from ports 1 and 2 are measured with the vector network analyzer to be checked and then evaluated by means of the T-Check software.
|1EZ26: 3-Port Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR1EZ26: 3-Port Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR||04.08.1998|
3-Port Adapter ZVR-B8 is an optional accessory to all Vector Network Analyzers of the ZVR family, namely ZVRL, ZVRE, and ZVR, and extends the two test ports PORT1 and PORT2 to a total of three test ports PORT1, PORT2 and PORT3. The option comprises an electronic single-pole double-throw switch (SPDT) by means of which PORT1 of the analyzer is switched to either PORT1 or PORT3 of 3-Port Adapter. Test port PORT2 of the analyzer is directly connected to PORT2 of the 3-Port Adapter and is not switched over.
|1EZ37: Multiport Measurements using Vector Network Analyzer ZVR1EZ37: Multiport Measurements using Vector Network Analyzer ZVR||04.08.1998|
Using the optional three-port or four-port adapter (ZVR-B8 and ZVR-B14), PORT 1 and PORT 2 of the network analyzers of the ZVR family (ZVRL, ZVRE and ZVR) can be expanded to up to four ports. Thus automatic measurements on three- and four-port DUTs can be easily performed without any reconnection of ports being required. With the electronic switches in the adapters, switchover between the various ports is fast to the extent that the known high measurement and display speed of the analyzers of the ZVR family is fully maintained.
|1EZ31: Measurements on Frequency-Converting DUTs using Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR1EZ31: Measurements on Frequency-Converting DUTs using Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR||04.08.1998|
ZVR is a vector network analyzer equipped with selective input channels for determining phase relations. Thus a wide dynamic range can be obtained. For measurements on frequency-converting DUTs (output frequency not identical to input frequency), the generator and receiver frequency ranges can be separately set. For measurements on DUTs using a built-in conversion oscillator, as is the case here, the conversion frequency must be exactly known so that the receiver can be accurately tuned to the respective output frequency. The maximum receiving bandwidth is 26.5 kHz. When a wide dynamic range is required, this bandwidth has to be reduced with the consequence that the requirement for the DUT output frequency and the ZVR receive frequency to be in agreement will be greater.
|1EZ44: Time Domain Measurements using Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR1EZ44: Time Domain Measurements using Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR||04.08.1998|
Vector Network Analyzers of the ZVR family measure magnitude and phase of complex S-parameters of a device under test (DUT) in the frequency domain. Using an inverse Fourier transform, the results can be transformed to the time domain. The impulse or step response of the DUT is obtained, which gives an especially clear representation of its characteristics. For instance, faults in cables can be directly localized. Moreover, special time domain filters, so-called gates, can be used to suppress unwanted signal components such as multireflections.
|1EZ33: Accessing Measurement Data and Controlling the Vector Network Analyzer via DDE1EZ33: Accessing Measurement Data and Controlling the Vector Network Analyzer via DDE||31.07.1998|
The RSIB interface enables the network analyzers of the ZVR family to be controlled by means of Windows applications via DDE. The interface functions are contained in the DLL RSIB.DLL. The other DLL RSDDE.DLL provides functions for the DDE access to the instrument firmware. These functions are used by RSIB.DLL. The interface of these functions greatly corresponds to that of National Instruments for programming the GPIB. The function names are similar to those of the NI library but preceded by RSDLL. The two DLLs are part of the firmware and are updated with the firmware update kits.
|1EZ41: Power Calibration of Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR1EZ41: Power Calibration of Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR||29.07.1998|
The option ZVR-B7 allows an enhanced power calibration of the source and of the receiver channels of a ZVR, then being active instead of the standard factory power calibration. Using an external power meter, the power level of input or output wave quantities will be adjusted to a desired value at an arbitrary reference plane.
|1EZ25: 4-Port Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR1EZ25: 4-Port Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR||28.07.1998|
Three hardware modifications of the option External Measurements ZVR-B25 enable the bidirectional network analyzers of the ZVR-family to carry out 4-port measurements. For the measurements, the four ports PORT 1, PORT 2, INPUT b1 and INPUT b2 at the front panel of the ZVR(E) are utilized. The fifth connector, ie OUTPUT a1, is not required for this purpose. As detailed below, the necessary modifications of the test set of the analyzer are described for the model ZVR. Of course, the modifications can be done in a similar way for the model ZVRE as well.
|1EZ30: AutoCal: Automatic Calibration of Vector Network Analyzer ZVR1EZ30: AutoCal: Automatic Calibration of Vector Network Analyzer ZVR||28.07.1998|
Vector network analyzers are used in high frequency applications to measure the complex scattering parameters of an unknown device-under-test (DUT). In general, the DUT characteristics can be evaluated by using electromagnetic waves. The correlation between the incident, reflected and transmitted wave quantities at the DUT is defined by its scattering matrix S.
|1EZ42: Pulsed Measurements on GSM Amplifier SMD ICs with Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR1EZ42: Pulsed Measurements on GSM Amplifier SMD ICs with Vector Network Analyzer R&S®ZVR||28.07.1998|
A special requirement for testing GSM components is to measure the electrical characteristics, such as the gain of a power amplifier, of the DUT under pulsed conditions. The test should be similar to real operating conditions for a mobile telephone.
|1EZ35: Group and Phase Delay Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer ZVR1EZ35: Group and Phase Delay Measurements with Vector Network Analyzer ZVR||28.07.1998|
Using a Vector Network Analyzer from the ZVR family, not only magnitude and phase can be measured, but also group delay and even phase delay. Whereas phase delay measurements produce the highest accuracy for the electrical length of non-dispersive devices under test, such as coaxial cables, group delay measurements also give a detailed insight into the frequency dependent delay characteristics of dispersive devices, such as filters. In addition to the traditional step aperture technique, Vector Network Analyzers from the ZVR family offer a frequency aperture technique, which allows a well defined and constant aperture for group delay measurements also for a nonlinear frequency sweep.
|1EZ29: Measurement Uncertainties for Vector Network Analysis1EZ29: Measurement Uncertainties for Vector Network Analysis||28.07.1998|
To quantify uncertainties for network analyzer measurements, the influence of the entire system (network analyzer plus test setup and DUT) has to be taken into account. Usually, the overall uncertainty of the complete measurement setup is determined with the aid of a verification kit, containing highly accurate verification standards. Of course, the verification standards need to have the same connector type as the DUT. If such verification standards are not available, the overall error has to be estimated.
|1EZ39: Internal Data Transfer between Windows 3.1 / Excel and Vector Network Analyzer ZVR1EZ39: Internal Data Transfer between Windows 3.1 / Excel and Vector Network Analyzer ZVR||28.07.1998|
This Application Note describes the internal transfer of ZVR measurement data in Excel, carried out on the PC option of the ZVR, and the evaluation of the data in Excel tables. To start the data transfers, macros are implemented under Excel.